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Toxicology in 50 Minutes. Vincent J. Giblin, General President. Phone: (304) 253-8674 Fax: (304) 253-7758 E-mail: hazmat@iuoeiettc.org. 1293 Airport Road Beaver, WV 25813.

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Presentation Transcript
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Toxicology in 50 Minutes

Vincent J. Giblin, General President

Phone: (304) 253-8674

Fax: (304) 253-7758

E-mail: hazmat@iuoeiettc.org

1293 Airport Road

Beaver, WV 25813

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This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

what is toxicology
What is toxicology?
  • The study of the negative effects of chemicals on living things
  • A chemical is considered toxic depending on
    • How much of it is necessary to cause harm
    • How easily it can enter the body

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

routes of exposure
Routes of exposure
  • In order for a chemical to cause injury, it must enter the body
    • Inhalation
    • Ingestion
    • Absorption through the skin
    • Injection

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

chemicals in the body
Chemicals in the body
  • Distribution - spread throughout the body
  • Metabolism - broken into smaller chemical compounds
  • Storage - kept in the body for a long time
  • Excretion - passed out through urine, feces, exhaled air, or sweat

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

toxic effects
Toxic effects
  • Toxic chemicals disrupt the normal functions of the body. Effects can be
    • Local - at the site of exposure
    • Systemic - affecting the entire body
      • target organs - organs or systems where symptoms of exposure appear

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

dose and response
Dose and response
  • The reaction is dependent on the amount of the chemical received, but...
    • Some doses are so small they produce no response
    • Once the maximum reaction has occurred, increasing the dose doesn’t change the reaction

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

dose response curve alcohol
Dose-response curve - alcohol

Death

Labored breathing

Coma

Response

Sleep

Slurred speech

Relaxed

No effect

Dose

acute and chronic exposures
Acute and chronic exposures
  • Acute - sudden, brief
    • A bee sting
  • Chronic - repeated small doses over time
    • Smoking cigarettes for years

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

acute and chronic effects
Acute and chronic effects
  • Acute - lasting hours
  • Chronic - lasting a long time - possibly years

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

ld50 and lc50
LD50 and LC50
  • These terms derive from laboratory tests on animals
    • LD50 is the dose which when swallowed, injected, or applied directly, kills half the test subjects
    • LC50 is the concentration of a chemical in a test atmosphere that kills half the test subjects within one hour when inhaled

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

exposure limits
Exposure Limits
  • PEL - permissible exposure limit - airborne concentration enforced by OSHA
  • STEL - short-term exposure limit -15 minutes four times a day, with l hour free of exposure between each 15 minute exposure
  • IDLH - immediately dangerous to life and health - maximum airborne concentration which would not interfere with ability to escape

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

good work practices
Good work practices
  • Read the MSDSs
  • Use PPE when required
  • Practice good hygiene
    • Don’t eat, drink, smoke, or apply cosmetics around hazardous chemicals
    • Wash your hands
    • If showering and changing clothes after your shift is recommended, do so

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

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This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

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END
  • This publication was made possible by grant numbers 5 U45 ES06182-13 AND 5 U45 ES09763-13 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program