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Learning . Relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience. Classical Conditioning .

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learning
Learning
  • Relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience
classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning
  • Learning procedure in which a stimulus that normally elicits a given response is repeatedly preceded by a neutral stimulus. Eventually the neutral stimulus will evoke a similar response when presented by itself.
classical conditioning1
Classical Conditioning
  • Neutral Stimulus (NS)
    • Stimulus that has nothing to do with response
classical conditioning2
Classical Conditioning
  • Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)
    • An event that leads to a certain predictable response with out previous training
classical conditioning3
Classical Conditioning
  • Unconditional Response (UCR)
    • A reaction that occurs naturally and automatically when the unconditioned stimulus is presented
classical conditioning4
Classical Conditioning
  • Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    • Ordinarily neutral event leads to a response
classical conditioning5
Classical Conditioning
  • Conditioned Response (CR)
    • The event that is caused (learned)
classical conditioning6
Classical Conditioning
  • Is most reliable when the conditioned stimulus is presented just before the unconditioned stimulus (formerly the NS)
classical conditioning7
Classical Conditioning
  • Generalization
    • Occurs when a response happens to a second stimulus similar to the original conditioned stimulus
classical conditioning8
Classical Conditioning
  • Discrimination
    • The ability to respond differently to different stimuli
classical conditioning9
Classical Conditioning
  • Extinction
    • The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response because the reinforcement is withheld or because the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented with out the unconditioned stimulus
classical conditioning10
Classical Conditioning
  • Spontaneous Recovery
    • Condition stimulus not given, conditional response fades, but if the conditional stimulus is reintroduced the conditional response comes back
operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning
  • That which is learned from the consequences of behavior
  • A certain action is reinforced or punished resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in the likelihood that similar action will happen again
  • How behavior is affected by consequences
operant conditioning1
Operant Conditioning
  • Reinforcement
    • A stimulus or event that affects the likelihood that an immediately preceding behavior will be repeated
operant conditioning2
Operant Conditioning
  • Reinforcement Schedule
    • Time and frequency of reinforcement
    • Learning occurs best with intermittent reinforcement (partial schedule)
operant conditioning3
Operant Conditioning
  • Fixed Schedule
    • Reinforcement depends on a specific quantity of responses
operant conditioning4
Operant Conditioning
  • Variable Ratio
    • Number of responses needed for reinforcement changes from one time to the next
operant conditioning5
Operant Conditioning
  • Fixed Interval
    • The first response after a predetermined time has elapsed since the last reinforcement
operant conditioning6
Operant Conditioning
  • Variable Interval
    • The time at which reinforcement becomes available changes throughout the conditioning procedure
operant conditioning7
Operant Conditioning
  • Signals
    • Stimuli that are associated with receiving rewards
operant conditioning8
Operant Conditioning
  • Negative Reinforcement
    • Unpleasant or painful stimulus is removed or not applied
    • Removal of unpleasant consequences increases the frequency of a behavior
operant conditioning9
Operant Conditioning
  • Escape Conditioning
    • Persons behavior causes an unpleasant event to stop
operant conditioning10
Operant Conditioning
  • Avoidance Conditioning
    • Person’s behavior has the effect of preventing an unpleasant situation from happening
factors that affect learning
Factors that Affect Learning
  • Feedback- finding out results of an action or performance
  • Transfer- a skill you have already learned can help you learn another new skill
  • Practice- repetition of a task, helps bind responses together
learning strategies
Learning Strategies
  • Learning to learn
  • Learned Helplessness
    • The condition in which the person suffers so severely or so often that they come to the belief that it is uncontrollable and any effort to cope will fail
  • Shaping
    • Process which reinforcement is used to sculpt new responses out of old ones
  • Modeling
    • Albert Bandura
    • Process which reinforcement is used to sculpt new responses out of old ones
operant conditioning11
Operant Conditioning
  • Punishment
    • Unpleasant consequences occur with a decrease in the frequency of the behavior that produces it
    • Negative
      • grounding
    • Positive
      • Spanking
information processing
Information Processing
  • Cognitive and mental activities
  • Memorizing list of names to writing poetry
information processing1
Information Processing
  • Input
    • information people receive from the senses
  • Central Processing
    • sorting and storing in the brain
  • Output
    • ideas and actions that result from processing
taking in information
Taking in Information
  • Selective Attention
    • ability to pick and choose among the various available inputs
  • Feature Extraction
    • Deciding on which aspects of the selected channel you will focus
storing information
Storing Information
  • Memory
    • Input registered and held onto in the brain
memory
Memory
  • Sensory
    • holds info for a second
memory1
Memory
  • Short term
    • keeps in mind as long as you repeat it
    • Rehearsal
      • repeating info for a few seconds to keep in short term memory
    • Chunking
      • collection of similar items put together
memory2
Memory
  • Long Term
    • Semantic
      • knowledge of language including its rules, words, and meanings
    • Episodic
      • memories of our own life
retrieving information
Retrieving Information
  • Bring forth memories from the brain
retrieving information1
Retrieving Information
  • Recognition
    • knowledge or finding in the brain
  • Recall
    • active reconstruction of information
    • confabulation
      • remember info not given
    • eidetic
      • “photo graphic memory”
relearning
Relearning
  • Learning in past, forgotten, relearned faster
forgetting
Forgetting
  • Inputs fade away or decay over time
  • Interference
    • refers to a memory being blocked or erased
    • proactive
      • earlier memory does blocking
    • retroactive
      • later memory does blocking
forgetting1
Forgetting
  • Repression
    • subconsciously blocking memories
      • usually of bad experiences
improving memory
Improving Memory
  • Chunking
  • Meaningfulness
  • Association
  • Lack of interference
  • Mnemonic Devices
    • associations to memory
central processing of information
Central Processing of Information
  • Thinking
    • Changing and reorganizing information stored in memory in order to create new information
units of thinking
Units of Thinking
  • Images
    • mental representation of a specific event or object
  • Symbols
    • sound or design that represents an object or quality
  • Concept
    • when a symbol is used as a label for a class of objects or events with certain common attributes
  • Rule
    • statement of relationships between concepts
kinds of thinking
Kinds of Thinking
  • Direct
    • systematic and logical attempt to reach a specific goal- also called convergent
  • Non-directed
    • consists of a free flow of thoughts with no particular goal or plan- divergent
  • Metacognition
    • thinking about thinking
problem solving
Problem Solving
  • Strategies
    • specific method for solving a problem
    • break down into smaller parts
problem solving1
Problem Solving
  • Set
    • strategy becomes habit
problem solving2
Problem Solving
  • Creativity
    • ability to use information in such a way that the result is somehow new, original and meaningful
problem solving3
Problem Solving
  • Flexibility
    • ability to overcome rigidity
problem solving4
Problem Solving
  • Recombination
    • elements of a problem are similar but the solution is not
    • new mental arrangement of the elements
problem solving5
Problem Solving
  • Insight
    • sudden emergence of a solution by recombination of elements