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DEVELOPING A NOMENCLATURE FOR STEELHEAD, COHO, CUTTHROAT AND OTHER ANADROMOUS SALMONIDS WITH EXTENDED FRESHWATER REARING Hal Michael, John McMillan, Bob Gresswell, Leon Shaul, Bob Leland, Joan Trial
WHAT AND WHY? • Knowledge of life history “oddities” has advanced but terminology has not • What we call a fish, or how their behaviour is described, does not always mesh • A group is beginning to work to develop a unified nomenclature for these fish
A HATCHERY STEELHEAD CAN 1 Smolt as age-1, after stocking • Smolt as an age 2 or an age 3 • Stay permanently in freshwater • Die If it stays in freshwater after stocking it is called a residual
A WILD STEELHEAD CAN • Smolt as an age 1 • Smolt as an age 2 or 3 or 4 or.. • Stay permanently in freshwater • Die It has no special name, yet it and the hatchery fish behave in the same manner. Is an age 1+ non-smolted wild mykiss a residual?
STRAY, HOME STREAM FIDELITY • Wild migratory salmonids are believed to have very accurate homing instinct, some few who do not home accurately are said to stray. • A variety of studies on hatchery origin fish show significantly less accuracy in homing; they are called strays
STRAY, HOME STREAM FIDELITY II • Studies with non-lethal tags have shown some interesting results • A wild steelhead smolts from Stream A and returns to Stream B • A wild steelhead spawns in Stream A and repeat-spawns in Stream B • A wild steelhead spawns in Streams A&B in the same year • And the home stream is ???
STRAY, HOME STREAM FIDELITYSTRAY III • Sea-run cutthroat smolt from Stream A and overwinter in Stream B-these are called “Feeders” • Adult sea-run cutthroat overwinter in Stream A and them move to Stream B to spawn • Where’s “home?”
The big unanswered question: Where would it have gone to spawn? T An Alaskan coho: a brood year 1997 coho smolt ---- that originated who-knows-where---- spent the summer of 1998 in marine/estuarine waters, entered the Chilkat with the returning nomad migration in Fall 1998, was caught and CWT’d somewhere 5–26 km up the Chilkat between April 7 and June 2, 1999, re-entered saltwater and swam a minimum 67 km down and across Lynn Canal to the mouth of the Berners River where it joined the fall nomad migration up that system for 8 km to a Beaver Pond from which it was recaptured in a downstream migrant trough trap on May 17, 2000 at fork length of 126 mm. A second tagged Chilkat fish (length 127 mm) was recovered leaving the same pond 9 days later, but it had only been in saltwater during summer 1999, right after tagging, and had lived a “normal” coho existence in its first year. The big unanswered question: Where would it have gone to spawn?
STRAY, HOME STREAM FIDELITYSTRAY IV • Coho that smolt from Stream A and overwinter in Stream B, and maybe C, return to what home stream and what stream would they be a “stray”? • Currently, these coho are called Nomads
SMOLTS • Everybody knows that salmonids smolt in the spring • Except for coho and steelhead that also smolt in the fall
THE GOAL Develop a consistent nomenclature for PNW anadromous salmonids, concentrating on steelhead but recognizing that their life history patterns may occur in coho, cutthroat, native char, Atlantic salmon, sea trout, and coasters
KELTS • We call a post-spawning trout a kelt • When I named a post-spawning lamprey a kelt I was told this applies only to Atlantic salmon • A “resident” mykiss that spawns and then smolts is a smolt-kelt?
IF YOU WANT TO PARTICIPATE Contact Hal Michael at email@example.com We will then organize the group, divide up tasks, and move ahead.