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Social and Emotional Development (ages 1-3) . General Emotional Development. Emotional Development: the process of learning to recognize and express one’s feelings and learning to establish one’s identity and individuality

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general emotional development
General Emotional Development

Emotional Development: the process of learning to recognize and express one’s feelings and learning to establish one’s identity and individuality

Each child goes through emotional development cycles independently

Children of this age start to

experience negativism,

rebellion, happiness,

calmness, stability, and

inner peace

eighteen months
Eighteen Months

Self centered

Learning that some desires will not

be met immediately or ever


Spoken instructions are not very


Negativism: doing the opposite of what others want

Desire for independence, saying “no”

Self awareness: to understand that one is separate and independent from another

Distraction can be a way of coping with inappropriate behaviours

Temper tantrums are more frequent

two years
Two Years

Fewer emotional out bursts

Improved relationships with parents and other children

More outgoing, friendly, and less self -centered

  • Improved speech and motor skills, relieving frustration
  • Understands more patience
  • Expresses love and affection, seeks approval and praise
two and one half years
Two and One-Half Years

Comprehension and desires exceed physical abilities

Drive for independence causes them to resist pressures to conform

Don't like being bossed, shown, helped or directed

Moods change rapidly

Desire for consistency to cope with

the confusing world; helps build

security and confidence

Need more flexible and adaptable

limitations rather than hard and fast


three years
Three Years

Generally sunny and cooperative and are learning to be considerate

More physically able/less frustration

Take directions, take pride in tasks they can perform for others

Eager for praise and affection, willing to modify their behaviour in order to achieve

those responses

Fewer temper tantrums

Likes to talk to everything

Uses imagination

Responds to others talking

and follows basic instructions

three and one half years
Three and One-Half Years

More insecure

Fears are more common

May develop tensional habits

such as thumb-sucking, nail

biting, or nose picking.

Try to ensure their own security

by controlling their environment, this can make them more demanding

specific emotions
Specific Emotions

Express emotions openly until age 2 or 3

Control emotional expressions

Learn socially acceptable ways of displaying feelings ex. Using words

  • Emotions become more specific as they grow older
  • Common emotions; anger, fear, jealousy, affection, and sympathy

More targeted at person or thing causing the problem

Children express anger differently

They start to use their words

Frequency of anger decreases with age

Children with parents who are overly

critical or inconsistent become

frustrated easily and show anger

Parents should make sure that demands

on the child are both limited and

reasonable as they try to help the child

learn self control

  • Fears are related to factors such as physical condition, mental development; temperament, feelings of security and ability to cope with daily life
  • Children can pick up fears from parents
  • Separation anxiety: fear of being away from parents familiar caregivers, or normal environment
  • Ensure that they are safe and secure
  • Generalized fears can be caused by specific incidents

- avoid shaming a child for his/her fears

- encourage child to talk about fears and listen

- offer honest, understandable explanations for situations

that might have frightened the child

- nightmares can be vivid. Help child separate reality from


- make unfamiliar situations more secure with your presence

- discuss new experiences in advance

- teach the child how to control the frightening situation

- be supportive and understanding

  • Recognizable in second year
  • Most common cause of jealousy in early childhood is resentment of affection between parents
  • Sibling rivalry: competition between siblings for their parents affection and attention
  • Child may show off, act inappropriate, revert to baby like behaviours, such as bed wetting, thumb sucking, or baby talk
  • Tips to encourage children to develop good relationships with new siblings
      • Spend time alone with older child
      • Compliments
      • Give older child extra love and attention
love and affection
Love and affection

Must learn through experience and practice to love

First comes love of those who satisfy the babies physical needs

The sense of comfort, safety, confidence and encouragement later becomes more important

than physical needs

Child who is overly dependent

on parents/caregivers has

difficulty forming other


Supportive relationships with

parents, adults, and friends also

help children develop trust,

empathy, compassion, and a sense of right and wrong.


Self awareness: to understand that one is separate and independent from others. This helps children start to develop sympathy

Show little sympathy until age 2

Happy children show more

sympathy than a child whose

relationships are less


Age 3 tries to comfort the

other person

The ability to actually understand others feelings develop later

evaluating emotional development
Evaluating emotional development
  • Signs of healthy relationship between child and parents
      • Seeks approval and praise from parents
      • Turns to parents for comfort and help
      • Tells parents about significant events
      • Accepts limits/ discipline with unusual resistance
general social patterns
General Social Patterns

Social Development: the process of learning to interact with others and to express oneself to others

socialization: process of learning to get along with others

Certain social characteristics

and tasks can be expected

at different ages

eighteen months1
Eighteen Months

Begin to develop some independence from the family

Play independently near, but not actually playing with others

Often treats people more as objects

Their may be conflict

over toys

two years1
Two Years

Good at understanding and interacting with primary caregiver

Can read caregivers moods

When speech develops, child

can try and communicate

with others

Find it fun to have someone to play with and enjoy being with others

Most are still not able to share or take turns

Like to please people

two and one half years1
Two and one half years

Negativism characteristic carries over children's social relationship

Begin to learn about the rights of others

Social play works best with only two children

  • More easy-going with other toddlers
three years1
Three Years

Experience gives them confidence in themselves and in their own relationships with others

  • People are important to children of this age
  • Share, help, or do things another person’s way to please someone
  • Start interacting and cooperating with others while playing
  • Can work together in small groups to do stuff
  • Ex: Build blocks, play dolls, fit puzzles together
  • Most children at the age of 3 seek friends on their own
  • More sure of themselves, less easily frustrated
t hree and one half years
Three and one half years

Experienced in cooperative play, becomes more complex and includes more conversation

Enjoy companionship, know to share

Friendships are not always long-lasting and often change rapidly depending on the needs of the child

respecting individual personalities
Respecting Individual Personalities

Parents need to respect their child's individuality

A young child's self concept depends on how well the child feels accepted by other people

the sensitive child
The sensitive child

Prefer to be alone much of the time

Generally have a longer attention span than

other children

Often lack assertiveness to stand-up for own

rights and desires

Less adventurous and hold back from new experiences

Less tolerance for conflict

Especially frightened of strangers

Parents must help them meet new situations with less reluctance

Over protecting them doesn't help encourage independence

Should be aloud to explore

Small tasks help them build confidence

Don't hurry the children, allow them to take their own time

Allow them to adjust gradually to groups of children

the placid child
The placid child

Typically play happily with siblings and friends

Outgoing & respond to others easily

Take guidance well

Enjoy accepting responsibility for routine tasks; eating, dressing, bathing

Need encouragement and praise

the aggressive child
The aggressive child

Usually energetic and noisy

Inclined towards active, physical play

Take toys they want from other children

Often kick, bite, or hit to get their own way or cry or throw a temper tantrum

Praise is useful to guide

these toddlers

Self assertive children are

usually leaders rather than


Parents need to clarify

desirable and acceptable

behaviour goals for aggressive children

making friends
Making Friends

Friendships are important to normal social development

If child is unwilling to make friends you should check up on that.

Crucial for developing life long social skills

Learn to cope with rough play

  • Best to start playing together young, especially if only child
  • Children need to learn to solve disagreements
  • Know when to step in and help compromise and consider feelings
developing a good self concept
Developing a good self-concept

Basic attitudes about oneself are formed in early childhood

The way you feel about yourself affects your relationships with other people

Positive self concept: inclination to see oneself as good, worthwhile and capable

Negative self concept: inclination to see oneself as

bad, unimportant, and incapable

Parents are the biggest influence on a child's self


Exploring a safe environment helps build a positive

self concept

Sensible limits help the child learn what they can do

Children with a positive self concept get along better

with others

Children accept what others say about them is true

Children who think they are good, try and act the part

  • The task of helping children to learn to behave in acceptable ways
  • Children repeat behaviour that brings approval
  • Self discipline: the ability to control

ones own behaviour

    • 8-12 months: distractions
    • 12-15 months: keep unsafe objects away,

remove the child from forbidden activities,

distract them

    • 15-20 months: distraction, removal, and spoken


    • 2-3 years: explain your reasons
    • 3-4 years: reasonable, loving commands
discipline tips
Discipline Tips
  • Desired behaviour best taught through example
      • Fewer requests, reasonable and age appropriate
      • Be consistent, parents should agree on methods
      • Carry out all promises, follow through with the appropriate natural or logical consequences
      • Look at situations from the Childs

point of view

      • Keep explanations simple and brief
      • Be prepared to repeat
      • Not an outlet for an adults anger
      • All children need love and guidance

"IECER - The Institute for Early Childhood Education and Research - Faculty of Education." IECER - The Institute for Early Childhood Education and Research - Faculty of Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. .

"ZERO TO THREE: Development of Social-Emotional Skills ." ZERO TO THREE: Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. .

"Early Childhood Emotional and Social Development: Emotional Expressiveness and Understanding - Child Development and Parenting in Early Childhood." Mental Health, Depression, Anxiety, Wellness, Family & Relationship Issues, Sexual Disorders & ADHD Medications. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. .