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Ambient Assisted Living Systems. Wolfgang L. Zagler Vienna University of Technology Institute Integrated Study. The Conflicts between Technology, Acceptance, Ethics and Privacy. AAL at Vienna University of Technology.

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ambient assisted living systems
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyAmbient Assisted Living Systems

Wolfgang L. Zagler

Vienna University of Technology

Institute Integrated Study

The Conflicts betweenTechnology, Acceptance,Ethics and Privacy

aal at vienna university of technology
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyAAL at Vienna University of Technology
  • More than 10 years ago: Development of two smart rooms for severely impaired children (cognitive and motor).
    • for training their cognitive abilities.
    • for teaching reason and effect.
    • for playing with “smart” remote controlled toys.
    • for teaching them the basics of environmental control systems (ECS) and augmented and alternative communication (AAC).
aal at vienna university of technology1
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyAAL at Vienna University of Technology
  • The AUTONOMY System offered
    • a very intuitive user interface for the end users.
    • a very intuitive user interface for making all the configurations for the therapists and teachers.
    • several links to home automation and smart home components.
    • remote controls for TV and radio.
    • remote controls for a toy train.
aal at vienna university of technology2
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyAAL at Vienna University of Technology
  • Development of the “Friendly Restroom (FRR)
    • Re-inventing the toilet from scratch to become a smart toilet.
    • powered adjustments for seat height and tilt.
    • different illumination schemes.
    • special seating-areas for transfer from and to wheelchair.
    • powered and sensor-triggered rising assistance.
    • RFID user recognition to trigger user customized settings.
    • voice control and fall detector for automatic alarming.
aal at vienna university of technology3
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyAAL at Vienna University of Technology
  • The FRR received excellent acceptance by the users.
  • Many users gave enthusiastictestimonials at presentations.
  • A commercial version of FRR(downgraded from the prototype)is available.
aal at vienna university of technology4
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyAAL at Vienna University of Technology
  • Intensive tests with users:
    • in the laboratory.
    • in real life test.
  • Toileting is a sensitive and private topic:
    • all interviews and tests were prepared and accompanied by an expert in ethics.
    • explaining the tests and obtaining written informed consent.
together with ceit raltec
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyTogether with CEIT-RALTEC
  • About 1 ½ years ago the institute “Rehabilitation and Assisted Living Technology - RALTEC” was founded at the “Central European Institute of Technology – CEIT” at Schwechat (east of Vienna).
  • Two pilot projects launched:
    • e-Home – Development of a smart, context aware and assistive home for older persons.
    • e-Shoe – Instrumented shoe for fall prevention, fall detection and continuous gait analysis.
  • Establishing a “Living Lab” for real life tests.
project e shoe1
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyProject e-Shoe
  • Instrumented sole or insole:
    • Pressure distribution.
    • Accelerometers (3 axes).
    • Spatial position (Gyros).
  • Pre-processing in the heel of the shoe.
  • Wireless data transfer to base station at home or at the GP or clinic.
project e shoe2
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyProject e-Shoe
  • Will allow for continuous monitoring of gait:
    • not only during few minutes when in the gait laboratory.
    • showing a whole day.
    • recording therapy progress.
  • Continuous assessment of the risk of falling:
    • give early indicators and warnings to avoid falls.
    • trigger possible measures (inflatable hip protector).
    • summon help after fall occurred.
project e home
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyProject e-Home
  • Monitoring the activity and behaviour of inhabitants
    • Learning regular and healthy patterns
    • Responding to abnormal or critical patterns
    • Reminding when actions are forgotten, left unfinished or left in a dangerous state
    • Detecting early signs of suspicious health conditions
    • Making life more comfortable
project e home1
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyProject e-Home
  • Easy-to-install, plug and play solution
    • wireless multi-sensor nodes
    • non invasive sensors (acceleration, illumination, temperature, switches)
    • No cameras or microphones.
    • battery operated or alternative energy sources.
    • central unit for local processing.
    • data transfer to the outside only in emergency.
project e home2
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyProject e-Home
  • Three real life tests:
    • one week (female test person).
    • two weeks (female test person).
    • two weeks (male test person).
  • Manual evaluation of recorded sensor data.
  • Comparison with diary notes.
  • First tests with automatic analysis.
  • Preparation of a long term installation in two flats.
lessons we learned
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyLessons we Learned
  • What we learned from our test-persons.
  • What we learned from care persons, social workers and experts in ethics in discussing the coming long-time tests.
  • It is what WE learned – others will certainly have different experiences.
  • It is what we LEARNED – this does not imply that we yet also have the answers and solutions.
the technology is there1
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyThe Technology is there
  • An average scrap-yard today holds more (assistive) technology than 99% of our homes

So, bring the technology from the junk yard to the living room

once upon a time
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyOnce upon a Time

... in the good old golden days

… when technology was not the enemy of people

… who were concerned about privacy and data protection

… there lived …

slide21
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

1. a very nice old lady and …

2. her beautiful daughter

but they had a severe problem
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyBut they had a severe problem
  • Anybody could open the red door and step in
  • They did not like that and so mother and daughter went to see the friendly engineer

+

basic experiences 1
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyBasic Experiences (1)
  • Even with the most careful and open minded approach you can encounter reluctance, scepticism, suspicion – often where you never did expect it.
  • There will be roadblocks and resentments
    • It is not a general technophobia or techno-animosity
    • It can be resignation, tiredness, indifference, modesty
    • Kind of humility: “this will not pay-off for me”, “now I am too old”, “I bet, this will nor work here”.
basic experiences 2
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyBasic Experiences (2)
  • Test-persons and prospective customers are often more open-minded than carers and experts:
    • The recognized user-benefits of technology soon sweep away scepticism.
  • Well grounded confidence will work better than complicated discussions on privacy the (aged) user cannot sort out – make it trustworthy and simple
  • One of the first question is the price and “who will have to pay”?
  • Long-term revenues and indirect returns are simply neglected.
basic experiences 3
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyBasic Experiences (3)
  • Catalogue page of 1984
  • 10 MB HD for € 5.000(300 GB … 150 Mio €)
  • Moore’s law is in place

BUT

  • Will next generation agers be able to cope with next generation technology???
lesson 1
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyLesson #1
  • The “Help me ! – But please stay away !!” attitude:
    • The trade-off between assistance and feared side effects.
    • We discussed the possibilities of AAL with a group of social workers, and experts in care and ethics.
    • They wanted us to make “a house with a guardian angel”.
    • The did not want any sensors or monitoring.
lesson 2
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyLesson #2
  • If the house is by and by learning to do all and everything, the inhabitants will loose the rest of their skills and become lazy:
    • Assistance is considered good – but there could also be something like over-assistance and over-protection.
    • Wouldn’t it be better to make a less perfect solution?
    • As long as not vital part of the responsibility shall be left to the human inhabitants?
    • The help provided shall have a positive training effect.
    • Reminding is fine, but could become a nuisance if not done well and will result in low compliance.
lesson 3
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyLesson #3
  • Make absolutely clear to all players what and where the collected data are - and what will happen to them:
    • For context aware operation a lot of behavioural (and social and medical) data will have to be collected.
    • The home system shall do all the inference drawing on a local bases.
    • Data shall not migrate to other places except for reactions in case of emergency or where explicitly agreed upon.
lesson 4
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyLesson #4
  • The benefits of AAL have to be made clear and in an easy-to-understand way:
    • This has to be done in a very practical, non-technological and obvious way.
    • e.g. using scenarios, drama, stories …
    • not only for the inhabitants.
    • include relatives and friends.
    • include carers and payers.
lesson 5
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyLesson #5
  • AAL Technology must be communicated convincingly:
    • It will be a pervasive technology, but it should also be a persuasive technology.
    • Using the right words can be crucial (monitoring vs. observation etc.).
    • The fear of „Big Brother“ lingers everywhere – show them, that also a „Little Sister“ exists.
lesson 6
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyLesson #6
  • AAL Technology has to be solid, reliable and sustainable:
    • It has to fit into existing homes – so we believe in wireless technology, modularity and adaptive systems.
    • Installations shall be profitable even in the short run (say 6 to 12 months).
    • It is not necessary to have a 100% solution – but be honest in explaining the benefits and risks of your 80% solution.
lesson 7
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyLesson #7
  • The inhabitants still shall be the „Masters of their Universe“:
    • The decision for use or non-use of the system shall (as far as risk considerations allow) always stay with the users.
    • Switching-off shall be allowed (the duration shall be discussed).
    • Technology shall be unobtrusive but not completely invisible – total invisibility (the voice in the off) can be threatening.
slide38
Thank you

for

your

Attention

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

kontaktadresse
AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / PrivacyKontaktadresse

fortec –Research Group for Rehabilitation Technology

Institut „integrated study“

Vienna University of Technology

A-1040 Wien, Favoritenstrasse 11/029,

Tel.: +43 (1) 58 801 / 42900Fax: +43 (1) 58 801 / 42999

Email: [email protected]

Web: http://www.is.tuwien.ac.at

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