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Westward Movement. How do you look at barriers?. Roads, Turnpikes and Rivers.

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westward movement

Westward Movement

How do you look at barriers?

roads turnpikes and rivers
Roads, Turnpikes and Rivers
  • 1st Census in 1790, pop. Almost 4 mil., most lived east of Appalachian Mtns, changed people headed west, 1820 census pop. More than doubled, 2mil. West of Appalachians, traveling from NYC to Buffalo took 3 wks and very dangerous
  • Needed good roads, private companies built turnpikes, a gated roadway where they charged a fee for use, covered muddy areas w/ logs called corduroy roads
  • When OH became a state in 1803 asked for a road to connect, 1806 approved funds, opened in 1818, reached Vandalia, IL, main idea military reasons
  • River travel easier than bumpy, muddy roads, barges could head down stream w/ current, most rivers flowed north to south not east to west, upstream travel difficult and slow
  • Steam engines used on calm water by Rumsey and Fitch neither could over come the current, 1802 Robert Fulton developed a steam powered boat that sailed from NYC to Albany in 1807 in 32 hrs instead of 4 days, beat sail boats, boat called Clermont, increased river cities like Cincinnati and St. Louis
canals
Canals
  • Steamboats were a great improvement, depended on existing river system, could not effectively go East and West
  • In NY De Witt Clinton and other came up with a way to link NYC and the Great Lakes by building a canal, connecting Hudson River to Lake Erie
  • 1,000’s of laborers mostly Irish immigrants built the 361 mile Erie Canal, built locks to raise and lower over high points, 2 yrs of digging, open 10/26/1825, Clinton boarded barge in Buffalo went by canal to Albany and Hudson to NYC
  • Originally no powered carry boats, barges pulled by mules, two mules could carry a 100 ton barge 24 miles in one day, 1840’s began allowing steam boats
  • Canals built everywhere by 1850 3,600 miles of canals, brought prosperity and unity
settlement
Settlement
  • Americans moved west in waves, 1st wave in 1790’s, 4 new states between 1791 and 1803; VT, KY, TN and OH; 2nd wave 1816-1821 5 new states; IN, IL, MS, AL and MO
  • Dramatic growth OH in 1800(45,000) 1820(581,000)
  • Settled in communities along rivers for trade, canals opened up more land
  • Settled w/ like minded people IN settled by KY and TN; MI settled by NE
  • Gathered together for social events, like corn husking, barn raising and quilting bees
  • Felt opportunity for a new life