Westward Movement. How do you look at barriers?. Roads, Turnpikes and Rivers.
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1st Census in 1790, pop. Almost 4 mil., most lived east of Appalachian Mtns, changed people headed west, 1820 census pop. More than doubled, 2mil. West of Appalachians, traveling from NYC to Buffalo took 3 wks and very dangerous
Needed good roads, private companies built turnpikes, a gated roadway where they charged a fee for use, covered muddy areas w/ logs called corduroy roads
When OH became a state in 1803 asked for a road to connect, 1806 approved funds, opened in 1818, reached Vandalia, IL, main idea military reasons
River travel easier than bumpy, muddy roads, barges could head down stream w/ current, most rivers flowed north to south not east to west, upstream travel difficult and slow
Steam engines used on calm water by Rumsey and Fitch neither could over come the current, 1802 Robert Fulton developed a steam powered boat that sailed from NYC to Albany in 1807 in 32 hrs instead of 4 days, beat sail boats, boat called Clermont, increased river cities like Cincinnati and St. Louis
Steamboats were a great improvement, depended on existing river system, could not effectively go East and West
In NY De Witt Clinton and other came up with a way to link NYC and the Great Lakes by building a canal, connecting Hudson River to Lake Erie
1,000’s of laborers mostly Irish immigrants built the 361 mile Erie Canal, built locks to raise and lower over high points, 2 yrs of digging, open 10/26/1825, Clinton boarded barge in Buffalo went by canal to Albany and Hudson to NYC
Originally no powered carry boats, barges pulled by mules, two mules could carry a 100 ton barge 24 miles in one day, 1840’s began allowing steam boats
Canals built everywhere by 1850 3,600 miles of canals, brought prosperity and unity