LE 4000 ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES STEP 4 Documenting academic sources The APA Style Of Referencing References : The Purdue University Writing Lab Postgraduate Thesis Dissertation Manual, International Islamic University Malaysia
By now, you should have referred to a number of academic sources. Let us proceed to the APA STYLE OF REFERENCING
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. For the latest and official APA “Electronic Reference Formats" document : Go to http://www.apastyle.org OWL website: owl.english.purdue.edu What is APA ?
In your research academic writing, proper documentation should be a priority! Warning : This part takes an eye for detail.
APA Style: Two Main Concerns • The Reference Page /List (week 3 onwards) • Parenthetical Citations (week 7 onwards)
Why Use APA Format? • Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily • Provides consistent format within a discipline • Gives you credibility as a writer • Protects yourself from plagiarism
1. Cross-Referencing Your Sources Cross-referencing allows readers to locate the publication information of source material. This is of great value for researchers who may want to locate your sources for their own research projects.
2. Using a Consistent Format • Using a consistent format helps your reader understand your arguments and the sources they’re built on. • It also helps you keep track of your sources as you build arguments.
3. Establishing Credibility The proper use of APA style shows the credibility of writers; such writers show accountability to their source material.
4. Avoiding Plagiarism Proper citation of your sources in APA style can help you avoid plagiarism, which is a serious offense. It may result in anything from failure of the assignment to expulsion from the university.
The Reference Page /List • Your reference list should appear on a new page,at the end of your paper. • It is a list of every source that you make reference to in your essay (each retrievable source cited in the essay must appear on the reference list, and vice versa). • It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any sources cited in your essay.
A sample of a reference page/list References Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Book. Festinger, L., Riecken, H., & Schacher, S. (2000). When prophecy fails. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Johnson, J.E., & Yule, A. (1994). Play and early childhood development. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Klein, J. (1998, October 5). Dizzy days. The New Yorker, 40- 45. Shay, J. (1994). Achilles in Vietnam: Combat trauma and the undoing of character. New York: Touchstone. Shaykh Abd. Rahman Ibn Abd. Latif. (1972). Masahi ulama najd. Al-Riyad: Dar-al-Yamamah.
The reference list (APA STYLE) POINTS TO REMEMBER: • Entries must be arranged in alphabetical order. • Typing must be double-spaced. • Entries should have a hanging indent. • Entries must not be categorized. • Entries must not be numbered. • Only the first word of the title of the book, the word after a colon and proper names should be capitalized. • Titles of books and names of journals, magazines and newspapers should be typed in italics. Don’t underline. • Use the colon to separate the place of publication and the publisher.
The reference list (APA STYLE) • Use full stop at the end of every entry and after every partof the entry for example after year, after title etc. • Write the surnames in full but use only the initials for first and middle names. • Write muslim names in full. • Alphabetize group authors, such as associations or government agencies, by the first significant word of the name. • If the work is signed “anonymous” the entry begins with the word anonymous spelled out, and the entry is alphabetized as if anonymous were a true name. • If there is no author, the title moves to the author position, and the entry is alphabetized by the first significant word of the title. • Treat legal reference like with no author; that is, alphabetize legal references by the first significant item in the entry.
The reference list (APA STYLE) NOW, PLEASE FOCUS ON THE SPECIFIC RULES INVOLVED.
BOOKS – SINGLE (1) AUTHOR Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Book. Shaykh Abd. Rahman Ibn Abd. Latif. (1972). Masahi ulama najd. Al-Riyad: Dar-al- Yamamah.
BOOKS - 2 AUTHORS Johnson, J.E., & Yule, A. (1994). Play and early childhood development. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
BOOKS - 3 to 6 AUTHORS Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., & Harlow, T. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self- esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.
BOOKS – MORE THAN 6 AUTHORS Harris, M., Karper, E., Stacks, G., Hoffman, D., DeNiro, R., Cruz, P., et al. (2001). Writing labs and the Hollywood connection. Journal of Film and Writing,44(3), 213-245. Note: If there are more than six authors, list the first six as aboveandthen "et al.,“ which stands for "and others." Remember not to place a period after "et" in "et al
BOOKS - EDITED COLLECTION Higgins, J. (Ed). (1989). Psychology. New York: Norton. Grice, H.P., & Gregory, R.L. (Eds.). (1986). Early language development. New York: McGraw Hill.
BOOKS –A SPECIFIC EDITION Brocket, O. (1967). History of the theatre (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
BOOKS- SECOND WORK BY THE SAME AUTHOR Brown, R. (1985). Words and things. New York: Macmillan. Brown, R. (1997). Social psychology. New York: Macmillan. Note: list the entries by the year (earliest comes first).
BOOKS- SECOND WORK BY THE SAME AUTHOR IN THE SAME YEAR Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17, 408-416. Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52, 636-643.
BOOKS - UNKNOWN AUTHOR Experimental psychology. (1988). New York: Holt Publication.
CORPORATE AND GOVERNMENT AUTHORSHIP International Islamic University Malaysia. (1992). Islamization of knowledge. Malaysia: Research Centre Publishing. Institution of Financial Education. (1982). Managing personal funds. Chicago: Author.
RELIGIOUS SOURCES Al-Quran, Surah Al-Baqarah: 152-153.
THESIS Ahmad Zaini Zahid. (1991). A study of sleep of sleep deprivation and its effects on teenagers. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska).
WEB PAGES Chou, L. (1999). Technology and education. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from http://www.ilt.columbia.html. New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2000). Retrieved March 21, 2000, from http://news/health
JOURNAL, E-JOURNAL AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES Faisal Othman. ( October 6, 1996). Islam and development. The Star, p. 12. Fredickson, B.L. (2000). Cultivation of positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention and treatment (3), 2000. Retrieved 20th June 2001, from http://www.journals.apa Sawyer, J. (1996). Measurement and prediction. Psychological Bulletin (3), p. 178-200.
JOURNAL, E-JOURNAL AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES - NO AUTHOR Clinton puts human face on health-care plan. (1993, September 16). The New York Times, p. 11. Cultivation of positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. (2000). Prevention and treatment (3), 2000. Retrieved 20th June 2001, from http://www.journals.apa.
LEGAL CASES Faridah Dato’ Talib v Mohd Habibullah. (1990). 1 MLJ 74. Ngieng Shiat Yen v Phang Wai Ann. (1995). 3 MLJ 130.
ACTS Mental Health System Act, (1988)
ITEMS IN ANTHOLOGY Rubenstein, J.P. (1997). The effects of television violence on small children. In B.F. Kane (Ed.) Television and juvenile psychological development. New York: American Psychological Society.
TELEVISION AND RADIO PROGRAMMES Keillor, G. (Producer), & Smith, L. (Director). (2 Oct., 1993). A prairie home companion (Radio Program). St. Louis: KMOX
INTERVIEWS AND LETTERS NOT INCLUDED in references BUT acknowledged in the text.