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GROUPD: Tarang Valecha Apurva Mali Dhananjay R. Prateek Singh. SHIP LOADS AND STRESSES. With the aid of diagrams, explain the effects of slamming, panting and racking & explain briefly how a ship should be designed to counter the above mentioned effects?. Static They are due to

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SHIP LOADS AND STRESSES


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    1. GROUPD: Tarang Valecha Apurva Mali Dhananjay R. Prateek Singh SHIP LOADS AND STRESSES

    2. With the aid of diagrams, explain the effects of slamming, panting and racking & explain briefly how a ship should be designed to counter the above mentioned effects?

    3. Static They are due to Internal forces result from structural weight, cargo and machinery weight. External static forces include the hydrostatic pressure of the water on the hull. Dynamic They are due to The ship’s motion in the sea. The action of the wind and waves Effects of operating machinery Stresses in ship’s structures Numerous forces act on a ship’s structure, some of a static nature, some are dynamic.

    4. We shall study the effects of • Slamming • Panting • Racking

    5. Slamming/Pounding • When the ship is heaving and pitching, the forward end leaves and re-enters the water with a slamming effect. • The most vulnerable area being 10-25% of the ship’s length from the bow. • Lightly loaded cargo ships are particularly liable to slam, and the enforced speed reduction maybe as much as 40%. • To compensate for this, the bottom over 30% forward is additionally strengthened in ships exceeding 65m in length and in which the minimum draught forward is less than 0.045L in any operating condition.

    6. Panting • The movement of the waves along a ship causes fluctuations in water pressure on the plating. • This tends to create an in and out movement of the shell plating, known as panting. • The effect is particularly evident at the bows as the ship pushes its way through water. • The pitching motion of the ship produces additional variations in water pressure, particularly at the bow and stem which also causes panting of the plating. • Additional stiffening is provided in the form of panting beams and stringers.

    7. Racking When a ship is rolling, the accelerations on the ship’s structure are liable to cause distortion in the transverse direction. The deck tends to move laterally relative to the bottom structure, and the shell on one side to move vertically relative to the other side. This type of deformation is referred to as racking. Transverse bulkheads primarily resist such transverse deformation, the side frames contribution being insignificant, provided the transverse bulkheads are at their usual regular spacing.Its greatest effect is felt when the ship is in the light or ballast condition. The brackets and beam knees joining horizontal and vertical items of structure are used to resist this distortion.

    8. Bibliography • Basic Ship Theory – Volume 2 • by KJ Rawson and EC Tupper • Ship Construction for Marine Students • Reeds’ Series