Section 5 Immunodeficiency. 1. Primary immunodeficiency. (1) Pure immunoglobulin deficiency ① Bruton-type gammaglobulinaemia ② Hypogammaglobulinaemia of late onset ③ Dysgammaglobulinaemia
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
(1) Pure immunoglobulin deficiency
① Bruton-type gammaglobulinaemia
② Hypogammaglobulinaemia of late onset
In these disorders these is susceptibility to bacterial and yeast infections, but viral infections are controlled normally. Cell-mediated reactions are intact.
① Thymic agenesis
② Thymic alymphoplasia (dysplasia)
③ Thymic hypoplasia or aplasia
Here the immunoglobulin levels are normal but there is a complete absence of cell-mediated reactions
(3) Mixed deficiency
(1) Excessive loss of immunoglobulins
① Protein-losing enteropathy
② Nephrotic syndrome
① Old age ② Malnutrition
③Viral infections such as acquired
④ Leprosy ⑤ Malaria
⑥ Sarcoidosis ⑦ Surgery
③ Cytotoxic drugs
④ Antilymphocyte serum
① Hodgkin’s disease
② Multiple myeloma
③ Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinaemia
④ Chronic lymphatic leukaemia
In June 1981, the centers for disease control of the United States reported that five young homosexual men in the Los Angeles area had contracted the AIDS
Etiology: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
HIV （from Robbins Basic Pathology ,2003）
① A long incubation period, followed by a slowly progressive fatal outcome.
② Tropism for hematopoietic and nervous systems
③ An ability to cause immunosuppression
④ Cytopathic effects in vitro.
Worldwide: about 10 million people are infected. Five groups of adults at high risk for developing AIDS:
① Homosexual or bisexual males
② Intravenous drug abusers
④ Recipients of blood and blood components
⑤ Heterosexual contacts
HIV→CD4+ cell→ CD4+ cell lysis → opportunistic infections and neoplasms
Neither specific nor diagnostic.
① Widespread opportunistic infections
② Kaposi’s sarcoma
③ Lymphoid tumors
(From Robbins Basic Pathology ,2003）
Offered by Prof Song W Wong
(Dr. Dennis Burns) . (From Robbins Basic Pathology ,2003）
Marked follicular hyperplasia (early stages)→ Lymphoid cells depletion (empty-looking lymph nodes or spleen and thymus in later stages).