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aka. Monopolistic Competition. rice. P S W L B t E. e ekers. ith. ow. arriers. o. ntry. Characteristics. Firms face low entry barriers Differentiated Products - they face a downward sloping demand curve - no Long Run Profits -Non-price Competition Price Taker

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slide1

aka

Monopolistic Competition

rice

P

S

W

L

B

t

E

eekers

ith

ow

arriers

o

ntry

slide2

Characteristics

  • Firms face low entry barriers
  • Differentiated Products
  • -they face a downward sloping demand curve
  • -no Long Run Profits
  • -Non-price Competition
  • Price Taker
  • Many Small Firms
slide3

Product Differentiation

  • Price-searchers producedifferentiated products – products that differ in design, dependability, location, ease of purchase, etc.
    • Rival firms produce similar products (good substitutes) and therefore each firm confronts ahighly elastic demand curve.
slide4

McHits orMcMisses?

Hulaburger - 1962

Filet o Fish - 1963

Strawberry shortcake - 1966

Big Mac - 1968

Hot Apple Pie - 1968

Egg McMuffin - 1975

Drive Thru - 1975

Chicken McNuggets - 1983

Extra Value Meal - 1991

McLean Deluxe - 1991

Arch Deluxe - 1996

55-cent Special - 1997

Big Xtra - 1999

McRib, Sundaes and others ??

slide5

Fish Supreme

Chicken Parmesan Sandwich

2/3 lb. Monster Thickburger®

1/3 lb. Low Carb Thickburger®

Little Thick Cheeseburger

1/4 lb. Little Thickburger®

1/3 lb. Cheeseburger

Chili Cheese Thickburger®

1/3 lb. Original Thickburger®

1/3 lb. Mushroom 'N' Swiss Thickburger®

1/3 lb. Bacon Cheese Thickburger®

Big Chicken Fillet Sandwich

Charbroiled Chicken Club Sandwich

Charbroiled BBQ Chicken Sandwich

Big Hot Ham 'N' Cheese™

Regular Hamburger

Regular Cheeseburger

Double Cheeseburger

5-Piece Chicken Breast Strips

7-Piece Chicken Breast Strips

Big Shef

slide7

Price and Output

  • A profit-maximizing price searcher will expand output as long asmarginal revenueexceedsmarginal cost.
    • Price will be lowered and output expanded untilMR = MC
  • The price charged by a price searcher will be greater than itsmarginal cost.
slide8

Reduction inTotal Revenue

Increase inTotal Revenue

Marginal Revenue of a Price Searcher

  • Initial price P1 & output q1. Total revenue (TR) =P1 * q1.

Price

1. As price falls from P1 to P2, output increases from q1 to q2,

two conflicting influences on TR.

P1

1. TR will rise because of an increase in the number of units sold (q2 - q1) * P2.

P2

2. TR will decline [(P1 - P2) * q1] as q1 units once sold at the higher price (P1) are now sold at the lower price (P2).

d

  • Depending on the size of the shaded regions, total revenue may increase or decrease.

MR

Quantity/time

q2

q1

slide9

Total Cost

Price (AR)

Marginal Cost

Output

Marginal Revenue

Total Revenue

Quantity

ATC

50

80

90

110

140

180

230

290

360

440

530

110

90

70

50

30

10

-10

-30

-50

-70

30

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

___

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

0

110

200

270

320

350

360

350

320

270

200

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

80

45

37

35

36

38

41

45

49

53

___

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slide10

What do these curves look like?

Price (AR)

Marginal Cost

Marginal Revenue

Quantity

ATC

30

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

110

90

70

50

30

10

-10

-30

-50

-70

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

80

45

37

35

36

38

41

45

49

53

How many to produce?

slide11

120

110

Cost

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

6

7

8

9

10

3

4

5

1

2

Output

slide12

120

110

Cost

100

MC

90

80

70

ATC

60

50

40

30

AR

20

MR

10

0

6

7

8

9

10

3

4

5

1

2

Output

slide13

1. Firm’s profit maximizing output?

2. What price will they charge?

3. Firm’s revenue? Total Cost? Total Profit?

Price

4. How will things change in time?

MC

24

ATC

10

8

D = AR

MR

0

50

45

30

Quantity

slide14

EconomicProfits

Price and Output: Short Run Profit

  • A monopolistic competitor maximizes profits by producing where MR=MC, at output level q

MC

Price

and charges a price P along the demand curve for that output level.

ATC

P

  • At q the average total cost is C.

C

  • What impact will economic profits have if this is a typical firm?

d

  • Because the price is greater than the average total cost per unit (P > C) the firm is making economic profits equal to the area ( [ P - C ] *q )

MR

Quantity/time

q

slide15

Profits and Losses in the Long Run

  • Economic profitsattract competition.
    • New firms will expand supply and lower price.
    • Individual demand curves will shift inward until the economic profits are eliminated.
  • Economic lossescause firms to leave the market.
    • Demand for the remaining firms’ output will rise until the losses have been eliminated, ending the incentive to exit.
  • Firms can make either profits or losses in the short run, but only zero economic profit in the long run.
slide16

C = P

Price and Output: Long Run

  • Because entry and exit are free, competition will eventually drive prices down to the level ofATC.

MC

Price

  • When profits (losses) are present, the demand curve will shift inward (outward) until the zero profit equilibrium is restored.

ATC

P

  • The price searcher establishes its output level whereMC=MR.
  • At q theaverage total costis equal to the market price. Zero economic profit is present. No incentive for firms to either enter or exit the market is present.

d

MR

Quantity/time

q

slide17

Profits and Losses

Entry and Exit

Case 1: Prices rise

Profits

Entry or Exit?

Supply

slide18

SR Profits

1. Increased Demand, Price goes up

2. Firms enter, Demand faced by each firm decreases

Price

$6

ATC

$5

MC

$4

SR Profits

$3

Demand

$2

3. Price goes down

$1

4. No LR Profits

0

10

20

30

40

60

50

Quantity

slide19

Profits and Losses

Entry and Exit

Case 2: Prices fall

Profits

Entry or Exit?

Supply

slide20

SR Losses

1. Demand falls, Price goes down

2. Firms leave, Demand faced by each firm increases

Price

$6

ATC

$5

MC

$4

Demand

$3

SR Losses

$2

3. Price goes up

$1

4. No LR Losses

0

10

20

30

40

60

50

Quantity

slide21

Pure Comp

Mono comp

Price

Price

Quantity/Time

Quantity/Time

Comparing Price Taker Markets

  • LR equilibrium for both.
  • P= ATCand there are no economic profits.
  • In monopolistic competition, firms face a downward-sloping demand curve, its profit-maximizing price exceedsMC.
  • In Monopolistic Competition, output is too small to minimize ATC in long-run equilibrium.

MC

MC

ATC

ATC

P2

d

P1

d

MR

q1

q2

slide22

Pure Comp

Mono comp

Price

Price

Quantity/Time

Quantity/Time

Comparing Price Taker Markets

  • Even though the two markets have the same cost structure, the price in the monopolistic competitor’s market is higher than that in the price-taker’s market ( P2>P1).
  • Some consider this price discrepancy a sign of inefficiency; others perceive it as a premium society pays for variety and convenience (product differentiation).

Price

Price

MC

MC

ATC

ATC

P2

d

P1

d

MR

q1

q2

slide23

Allocative Efficiency

  • Allocative efficiencyis achieved when the most desired goods are produced at the lowest possible cost.
  • The Minimum point on the ATC curve:
    • ATC>marginal cost at the minimum point
    • No allocative efficiency in Monopolistic Competition.
slide24

Price Discrimination

  • Sellers may gain from price discrimination by charging:
    • higher prices to groups of customers with more inelastic demand
    • lower prices to groups of customers with more elastic demand
  • Price discrimination generally leads to more output and additional gains from trade.
slide25

Net operating revenue($300*100) = $30,000

MC

The Economics of Price Discrimination

  • Consider a hypothetical market for airline travel where the Marginal Cost per traveler is $100.
  • If the airline charges all customers the same price, profits will be maximized whereMC=MR.Here the airline charges everyone $400 and sells 100 seats.
  • This generates Net Operating Revenue of $30,000 or (total revenues) $40,000 – (operating costs) $10,000.

Price

$700

$600

$500

$400

$300

$200

$100

MR

D

100

Quantity/time

Single price

slide26

Net operating revenuefrom all others($200*60) = $12,000

Net operating revenuefrom business travelers($500*60) = $30,000

Net operating revenue($300*100) = $30,000

The Economics of Price Discrimination

  • By charging higher prices to consumers with less elastic demand and lower prices to those with more elastic demand it will increase net operating revenue.
  • If the airline charges$600to business travelers (who have a highly inelastic demand) and$300to other travelers (who have a more elastic demand), it can increase its Net Operating Revenue to $42,000.

Price

Price

$700

$700

$600

$600

$500

$500

$400

$400

$300

$300

$200

$200

MC

MC

$100

$100

MR

D

D

60

120

100

Quantity/time

Quantity/time

Price Discrim.

Single price

slide28

Right after you graduate, you get a job in production management and you are responsible for the entire company on weekends.

Here are the costs of production for the company:

Quantity Average Total Cost

500 $200

501 $201

Your current level of production is 500 units and all 500 have been ordered by regular customers.

One weekend, the phone rings. It is a customer who wants to buy one unit of your product. This means increasing production to 501 units. The customer offers to buy it for $450.

Should you accept the offer?

What is the net change in the firm’s profit?

slide29

Marginal Revenue = ??

Marginal Cost = ??

Quantity Average Total Cost

500 $200

501 $201

Total Cost (Q x ATC)

$100,000

$100,701

$100,701 - $100,000 = $701

Marginal Cost = $701

Marginal Revenue = $450

Profit orLoss

You’re Fired!!!

L o s s

slide30

In a competitive price-searcher market, the firms will

a. be able to choose their price, and the entry barriers into the market will be low.

b. be able to choose their price, and the entry barriers into the market will be high.

c. have to accept the market price for their product, and the entry barriers into the market will be low.

d. have to accept the market price for their product, and the entry barriers into the market will be high.

A profit-maximizing price searcher will expand output to the point where

a. total revenue equals total cost. b. marginal revenue equals marginal cost.

c. price equals average total cost. d. price equals marginal cost.

In the long run, neither competitive price takers nor competitive price searchers will be able to earn economic profits because

a. entry barriers into these markets are high, raising the costs of each firm.

b. the government will dictate moderate prices for these firms.

c. competition will force prices down to the level of per-unit production costs.

d. marginal revenue is always less than marginal cost when barriers to entry are low.

If a market is in long-run equilibrium, which of the following conditions will be present in a competitive price-taker market but absent from a competitive price-searcher market?

a. P = ATC b. MR = MC

c. P = MC d. MR < P

slide31

As long as a market is contestable, then even if it has only a few sellers, the

a. threat of new firms will prevent the prices from rising above the competitive level.

b. producers will be able to charge prices that are high enough to produce long-run economic profits.

c. producers will not face new competition because the barriers to entry are high.

d. market will never be expected to come close to the competitive result.

If firms in a competitive price-searcher market are currently earning economic losses, then in the long run,

a. new firms will enter the market, and the current firms will experience a decrease in demand for their products until zero economic profit is again restored.

b. new firms will enter the market, and the current firms will experience an increase in demand for their products until zero economic profit is again restored.

c. some existing firms will exit the market, and the remaining firms will experience an increase in demand for their products until zero economic profit is again restored.

d. some existing firms will exit the market, and the remaining firms will experience a decrease in demand for their products until zero economic profit is again restored.

Compared to the outcome when the firms are price takers, competitive price-searcher markets will result in

a. a wider variety of products and higher prices.

b. less product variety and higher prices.

c. a wider variety of products and lower prices.

d. less product variety and lower prices.

slide32

What price should this competitive price-searcher firm charge in order to maximize profits?

  • $5b. $7c. $8d. $10

d. $10

What is the maximum economic profit this firm depicted in Figure 2 will be able to earn?

b. $20

  • $0 b. $20 c. $30 d. $100

If the cost and demand conditions of this competitive price-searcher firm, what will happen in the future?

a. Firms will go out of business, and the market price will rise.

b. The current market price will tend to persist into the future.

c. New firms will enter the market, and demand facing this firm will decline.

d. The firms in this industry probably will collude in order to increase their profitability.

slide33

The average variable cost (AVC) and average total cost (ATC) for a firm are indicated in Figure 3. If the marginal cost curve were constructed, at what output would it cross the AVC curve?

a. 2 b 3

c. 4 d. 5

At what output would a properly constructed marginal cost curve cross the ATC curve?

a. 3 b 4 c. 5 d. 6

Calculate the total cost of producing four units.

a. $10 b. $15 c $60 d. $75

Calculate the total variable cost of producing three units.

a. $10 b. $15 c. $30 d. $45

slide34

Which output level would be most closely associated with the point where diminishing marginal returns have begun?

a 4 b. 5

c. 6 d. 8

Which output minimizes per-unit cost?

a. 4 b. 6 c. 7 d 8

Which of the following is true?

a. Firms in this industry begin to experience diminishing returns to their variable factors at output q1.

b. Between q1 and q2, firms in this industry experience economies of scale.

c Firms producing output rates less than q1 or more than q2 will find it difficult to survive.

d. The largest firms in this industry have the lowest per-unit cost.

slide35

The graph illustrates a firm

  • capable of earning economic profit.
  • that is only able to break even when it maximizes profit.
  • c taking economic losses.
  • d. that should shut down immediately.

When price rises from P2 to P3, the firm finds that

a. marginal cost exceeds marginal revenue at a production level of Q2.

b. if it produces at output level Q3 it will earn a positive profit.

c expanding output to Q4 would leave the firm with losses.

d. it could increase profits by lowering output from Q3 to Q2.

  • When price falls from P3 to P1, the firm finds that
  • fixed cost is higher at a production level of Q1 than it is at Q3.
  • it should produce Q1 units of output.
  • c. it should produce Q3 units of output.
  • d it should shut down immediately.