temperature a useful tracer for separating conduit and diffuse flow in the karstic madison aquifer n.
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Temperature: A useful tracer for separating conduit and diffuse flow in the karstic Madison aquifer. In cooperation with West Dakota Water Development District, City of Rapid City, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. Andy Long Patrick Gilcrease. Limestone Open passages.

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temperature a useful tracer for separating conduit and diffuse flow in the karstic madison aquifer

Temperature: A useful tracer for separating conduit and diffuse flow in the karstic Madison aquifer

In cooperation with

West Dakota Water Development District,

City of Rapid City,

South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

Andy Long

Patrick Gilcrease

slide2

Limestone

Open passages

Model shown conceptually

Inflow from sinking stream

Spring discharge

Slow flow

Conduit flow

slide3

Heat transport equation for flow in pipe

Ts

Tr

Tq

-

=

+

+

Heat flow in

Heat flow out

Heat

accumulation

Convective heat

from conduit wall

Heat from slow inflow

slide4

Inflow from small openings

Change in mass flow rate from slow inflow qs

Change in velocity due to change in mass flow rate

Final heat transport equation for the conduit

slide5

Limestone

Open passages

Mixing of conduit and slow flow to a well

The well is a binary mixture of conduit flow and local slow flow

Tq

Tl

1+ dimensional model

slide6

Black Hills

Model application

Study area is dominated by streamflow recharge (~90%)

slide8

Temperature sensor

Omega RTD class A

±0.03°C at 0°C

Spring Creek

Well house

slide9

Cross-section of Madison aquifer and conduit

Heat-transport equation is solved in each model cell by finite difference

summary
Summary
  • The model is useful for estimating the conduit flow fraction to a well or spring
  • Conduit flow to the well varied temporally from 2 to 31% of total flow
  • Conduit velocity ranged from 44 to 353 m/d
  • Changes in temperature for the well were influenced by conduit velocity and the changing relative pressures of the conduit and surrounding aquifer
slide13

ht = heat transfer coefficient

  • D = conduit diameter
  • qs = flow rate of slow flow
  • Ts = temperature of slow flow
  • Tq = temperature of rocks
  • Td = temperature of water at discharge point
  • = conduit flow fraction (weighted by head)