Gaining a Competitive Edge With Performance Testing
Testing isn’t Cheap But the RIGHT Testing is a Good Investment
Start at the Beginning • Before addressing performance features, make sure your fabrics and products meet mandatory standards and customer expectations for quality.
Health & Safety • Flammability • Restricted substances • Special children’s issues
Flammability • 16 CFR 1610: Standard for the Flammability of Clothing Textiles • ASTM D1230-10: Standard Test Method for Flammability of Apparel Textiles • CPAI-75: A Rate of Burn Standard for Sleeping Bags • ASTM F1955-99 (2005): Standard Test Method for Flammability of Sleeping Bags • CPAI-84: A Specification for Flame-resistant Materials Used in Camping Tentage • 16 CFR 1615/1616: Standard for the Flammability of Children's Sleepwear • ASTM D6545-10: Standard Test Method for Flammability of Textiles Used in Children's Sleepwear • Other national, state, and local regulations • Industry standards
Note: • Test method lists in this presentation are NOT comprehensive. • For every AATCC method listed, there are similar, identical—or totally different—ISO, JIS, BS, etc. methods for measuring the same property.
Restricted Substances • CPSIA • Lead (children’s product ≤ 300 ppm; paint ≤ 90 ppm) • Phthalates (toys and child-care items) • Cal Prop 65: Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 • American Apparel & Footwear Association RSL • Öko-Tex Standard 100 • … • Other government and industry RSLs
Children’s Safety • Tougher flammability and toxicity requirements • ASTM F963-07ε1: Standard Consumer Safety Specification on Toy Safety • Use and abuse • Small parts (16 CFR 1500.50-53 and 1501) • Sharp points (16 CFR 1500.48) • Sharp edges (16 CFR 1500.49) • Non-textile standards and regulations
Labeling 50% Cotton 50% Polyester Hand or machine Wash in cold water No bleach Tumble dry low Made in U.S.A. M • Care instructions • Fiber content • Safety • Identification SHELL: 100% POLYESTER INSERT: 100% NYLON LINING: 100% NYLON DOWN: 85% DOWN 15% FEATHER EXCLUSIVE OF ORNAMENTATION RN92740
Basic Quality Control • Dimensional Stability • Colorfastness • Strength • Durability
Make Claims that Make Sense • Know which features are important • in your product category • at your price point • to your customers • Know how to measure performance • Know how you compare with competitors Support Your Claims with Testing
Moisture Management • Water resistance • Absorbency • Drying time • Moisture transport
Water Resistance • AATCC TM22: Water Repellency-Spray Test Water is sprayed against the taut surface of a test specimen under controlled conditions. The specimen is evaluated by comparing the wetted pattern with pictures on a standard chart. This method is especially suitable for measuring the water-repellent efficacy of finishes applied to fabrics • AATCC TM35: Water Resistance: Rain Test A test specimen, backed by a weighed blotter, is sprayed with water for five minutes under controlled conditions. The blotter is reweighed to determine the amount of water passing through the specimen. Tests at different intensities give a complete picture of the penetration resistance of a single fabric or combination of fabrics. • AATCC TM42: Water Resistance: Impact Penetration Test Measures the resistance of fabrics to the penetration of water by impact, and thus can be used to predict the probable resistance of fabrics to rain penetration resistance of garment fabric. • AATCC TM70: Water Repellency-Tumble Jar Dynamic Absorption Test Subjects specimens to dynamic conditions similar to those encountered during actual use. Not intended for determining probable rain penetration resistance of fabrics, since it measures absorption of water into, but not through, the fabric. Results depend primarily on the resistance to wetting or water repellency of the fibers and yarns in the fabric, and not upon the construction of the fabric. • AATCC TM127: Water Resistance: Hydrostatic Pressure Test Measures the resistance of a fabric to the penetration of water under hydrostatic pressure.
Water Resistance Dynamic Absorption Spray Test Rain Test Impact Penetration Hydrostatic Pressure
AATCC/ASTM Moisture Management Technical Supplement (MM TS) procedures (are not standard test methods. They have not been reviewed, balloted, or approved by the processes stated in the Rules of Procedure for AATCC Test Method and Technology Committees or ASTM International. Some of the techniques may be considered for development as new standards or incorporated into existing standards in the future. Absorbency • AATCC TM 79: Absorbency of Textiles The completeness and uniformity of textile processing as well as the suitability of a fabric for a particular use is dependent upon its ability and propensity to take up water. The test is based on the amount of time it takes for a drop of water to disappear from the surface of a specimen (by being absorbed into the material). • MM TS-01: Quick Water Absorbency Designed to measure the water absorbency of textiles by measuring the time it takes for a drop of water placed on the fabric surface to be completely absorbed into the fabric. May be used to indicate comfort during wear, but most useful in measuring the affects of moisture control treatments used on textiles. • MM TS-04: Absorbent Capacity – Absorbency Testing System (ATS) Measures water absorbency, rate, and direction with an infrared sensor to determine the maximum absorbent capacity of a fabric.
Drying Time • MM TS-05: Gravimetric Drying Test Determines the time for a fabric to dry when wet with a specified amount of water. Indicates drying time during wear or hang drying, but results may not be applicable in different temperatures and humidities. • MM TS-07: Drying Time Determines drying time by wetting fabric and recording weight at set intervals until dry. • MM TS-08: Drying Time of Wet Textile Fabrics A test specimen saturated in distilled water is placed inside a controlled atmosphere. Periodic weighings determine the rate of water loss. Garment construction is not considered.
Moisture Transport • AATCC TM 195: Liquid Moisture Management Properties of Textile Fabrics The test method produces objective measurements of liquid moisture management properties of knitted, woven and nonwoven textile fabrics. Results are based on water resistance, water repellency, and water absorption characteristics of the fabric structure, including the fabric’s geometric and internal structure and the wicking characteristics of its fibers and yarns. • MM TS-03: Horizontal Wicking Determines the horizontal spread or area of wicking of 0.5 mL of deionized water. • MM TS-06: Vertical Wicking Measures the time for water to wick up six inches from a cut edge or the distance wicked vertically in one hour.
Breathability • Air permeability • Vapor transport
UV Resistance • UPF • Colorfastness to light • Weather resistance
UPF • ASTM D6544 (preparation) • AATCC TM183 (testing) • ASTM D6603 (labeling)
Weather Resistance • AATCC TM 16: Colorfastness to Light Accelerated exposure for color change evaluation only. • AATCC TM 111: Weather Resistance of Textiles: Exposure to Daylight and Weather Test specimens and standard are exposed simultaneously to natural weathering. End point is a specified degree of degradation (color change, strength loss, etc.) or a specific amount of radiant energy. Exposures by calendar days, months, or years can result in more variation. • AATCC TM 169: Weather Resistance of Textiles: Xenon Lamp Exposure Sample and standard are exposed to a xenon lamp source. Strength and/or color is compared. • AATCC TM186: Weather Resistance: UV Light and Moisture Exposure Specimens are exposed to a fluorescent UV light source and periodic wetting. Resistance to degradation is rated in percent loss in strength, or percent residual strength (breaking or bursting) and/or color change. • AATCC TM 192: Weather Resistance of Textiles: Sunshine-Arc Lamp Exposure with and without Wetting Test specimens and standard are exposed under specified conditions of relative humidity or wetting. Weather resistance is evaluated by comparison to unexposed original material.
Stain Resistance • Soil prevention • Soil removal • Oily • Protein • Mineral
Stain Resistance • AATCC TM118: Oil Repellency: Hydrocarbon Resistance Test Evaluates resistance to wetting by a selected series of liquid hydrocarbons of different surface tensions. Drops are placed on the fabric surface and observed for wetting, wicking, and contact angle. The oil repellency grade is the highest numbered test liquid which does not wet the fabric surface. • AATCC TM130: Soil Release: Oily Stain Release Method Measures ability of fabrics to release oily stains during home laundering. Primarily to evaluate the likely performance of soil release finishes in actual use. • AATCC TM193: Aqueous Liquid Repellency: Water/Alcohol Solution Resistance Test Determines the efficacy of a protective finish for imparting a low energy surface on all types of fabrics by evaluating resistance to wetting by a series of water/alcohol solutions of different surface tensions. Drops are placed on the fabric surface and observed for wetting, wicking, and contact angle.
Durability • Appearance retention • Strength retention • Abradant • Abrasion direction
Durability (abrasion resistance) • ASTM D3884: Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics (Rotary Platform, Double-Head Method) Abradant wheels trace a circular pattern on the fabric specimen. • ASTM D3886: Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics (Inflated Diaphragm Apparatus) Determines the resistance to abrasion of woven and knitted textile fabrics, both conditioned and wet, using the inflated diaphragm tester. Result is the number of cycles until the abrasive panel breaks through the fabric. • ASTM D4157: Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics (Oscillatory Cylinder Method) Abrasion resistance of woven textile fabrics using the oscillatory cylinder tester. Common method for evaluating for upholstery.
Durability • ASTM D4158: Guide for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics (Uniform Abrasion) Every point in the surface of the specimen is equally and uniformly abraded in all horizontal directions. Evaluation options are fabric rupture, mass loss, thickness loss, and breaking strength loss. • ASTM D4966: Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics (Martindale Abrasion Tester Method) • The Martindale abrasion tester moves specimens in a Lissajous pattern against an abradant wool fabric. May not be suitable for fabrics with a pile depth greater than 2 mm. • AATCC TM93: Abrasion Resistance of Fabrics: Accelerotor Method • Specimen is driven along a zigzag course in a generally circular orbit within a cylindrical chamber, impinging on walls and abradant liner while being subjected to rapid, high velocity impacts. Evaluation is made on the basis of weight loss or grab strength loss of the specimen when broken at an abraded fold line.
Thermal Regulation • ASTM F1868 : Standard Test Method for Thermal and Evaporative Resistance of Clothing Materials Using a Sweating Hot Plate Thermal resistance and the evaporative resistance, under steady-state conditions, of fabrics, films, coatings, foams, and leathers, including multi-layer assemblies, for use in clothing systems. • ASTM D1518: Test Method for Thermal Transmittance of Textile Materials Measures the time rate of heat transfer from a warm, dry, constant-temperature, horizontal flat-plate up through a layer of the test material to a relatively calm, cool atmosphere. • ASTM F1291: Test Method for Measuring the Thermal Insulation of Clothing Using a Heated Manikin Insulation value of clothing ensembles. The method describes the measurement of the resistance to dry heat transfer from a heated manikin to a relatively calm, cool environment. This is a static test that provides a baseline clothing measurement on a standing manikin. The effects of body position and movement are not addressed.
Thermal Regulation • ASTM F2370: Test Method for Measuring the Evaporative Resistance of Clothing Using a Sweating Manikin Determination of the evaporative resistance of clothing ensembles. This static test measures the resistance to evaporative heat transfer from a heated sweating thermal manikin to a relatively calm environment. • ASTM F1720: Standard Test Method for Measuring Thermal Insulation of Sleeping Bags Using a Heated Manikin This test method covers determination of the insulation value of a sleeping bag or sleeping bag system. It measures the resistance to dry heat transfer from a constant skin temperature manikin to a relatively cold environment. This is a static test that generates reproducible results, but the manikin cannot simulate real life sleeping conditions relating to some human and environmental factors
Antimicrobial Activity • Odor control • Rot resistance • Qualitative • Quantitative
Antimicrobial Activity • AATCC TM30: Antifungal Activity, Assessment on Textile Materials: Mildew and Rot Resistance of Textiles The dual-purpose test method determines the susceptibility of textile materials to mildew and rot AND evaluates the efficacy of fungicides on textile materials. • AATCC TM100: Antibacterial Finishes on Textile Materials: Assessment of One of the most commonly used and well-recognized tests for antimicrobial-treated textiles, this method provides quantitative evaluation of the degree of antibacterial activity. Bacteria on treated and untreated specimens are counted after innoculation and incubation. Percent reduction by the treated specimen is calculated. • AATCC TM147: Antibacterial Activity of Fabrics, Assessment of Textile Materials: Parallel Streak Method This test detects bacteriostatic activity on textile materials. The Parallel Streak Method provides quick and easy qualitative determination of antibacterial activity of diffusable antimicrobial agents on treated textile materials. This method provides evidence of antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.
For more on choosing the right antimicrobial test: “Testing Antimicrobial Performance” (AATCC Review, Sept/Oct 2010)
Thanks! • Diana Wyman • AATCC • firstname.lastname@example.org • +1 919 549 3539