slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 4 19 th Century Architecture (Part 3) PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 4 19 th Century Architecture (Part 3)

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 11

Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 4 19 th Century Architecture (Part 3) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 136 Views
  • Uploaded on

University of Palestine Faculty of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning Dept. of Architecture, Interior Design & Planning. Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 4 19 th Century Architecture (Part 3) Chicago School of Architecture Dr. Hazem Abu- Orf.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 4 19 th Century Architecture (Part 3)' - timon-savage


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

University of Palestine

Faculty of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning

Dept. of Architecture, Interior Design & Planning

Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202)

Lecturer 4

19th Century Architecture (Part 3)

Chicago School of Architecture

Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 10.03.2009

the chicago school 1886 1895
The Chicago School (1886-1895)
  • One must turn to the USA for the first large scale development and consistent exploration of the new principles emerged; already presented in Chicago.
  • The architects of Chicago school laid the foundation of a modern commercial architecture.
  • In Chicago, there was accordingly the first use of skyscraper construction, the first scientifically planned foundations for high-rise buildings and the first development of aesthetic programs to actually suit the new technique.

The city of Chicago at the end of 18th century

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 10.03.2009

the chicago school historical development
The Chicago School Historical Development

What has made Chicago the forcing ground of a modern urban development & building technologies?

  • The capital of the Middle West in the USA, the 2nd commercial city after New York;
  • The city of the great lakes;
  • Key to the new East-West commercial axis of NY – SF;
  • The great fire of 1871 which left the ruins of Chicago attracting the architect’s imagination world wide.

Chicago ruins after the city being burned

The great fire of Chicago occurring in 1871

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 10.03.2009

the chicago school principles

William Jenny

The Chicago SchoolPrinciples

William Jenney:

  • Buildings are constructed to score the goals of being cheap and efficient providing the most possible natural day light into the office buildings;
  • The history witnessed the first skeleton skyscraper construction: the cladding is carried entirely by means of metal structure;
  • Large horizontal window (known as Chicago window ), with a fixed centre and movable sides that are varied in size within each elevation;
  • The use of horizontal cornice to hide the actual height of the floors & dividing the floor height into 2;
  • Example : Home Insurance Building – 1883 (10 stories building + 2 additional in 1890)

Home Insurance Building

Structural detail of the construction

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 10.03.2009

the chicago school principles1
The Chicago SchoolPrinciples

Daniel Burnham

Daniel Burnham

  • The full use of metal/steel frame and a large Chicago window (Reliance Building –1890);
  • Elevation elements in the front of the structural ones;
  • No use of any decoration elements (Romanesque style) in the façade paving the path for a glass elevation façade later on;
  • No intentions of hiding the height of the floors in the façade;
  • Therefore, no use of cornice elements in the elevations: the use of walls as an element to divide windows; and
  • Floors are repeated and much similar to each others.

Reliance Building-1890

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 10.03.2009

the chicago school principles2
The Chicago SchoolPrinciples

Louis Sullivan

Interior of Louis’ house

Louis Sullivan

  • A new conception of form emerged, with its tendency towards elements developed on the basis of function only;
  • Form ever follows function and this is basically a law;
  • Where no action does not change, form does not change, too.
  • The building should be accordingly planned and designed from inside to outwards.

Views of Louis’ house

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 10.03.2009

the chicago school principles3
The Chicago SchoolPrinciples

Louis Sullivan

  • Consideration to the construction is a key and to the functional problems of skyscrapers;
  • Office buildings form is derived from the functional character as a basis:
    • 1st – A storey below ground containing plant of power, heating, and other systems.
    • 2nd – A ground floor devoted to stores, banks or other establishment requiring large area, ample spacing or great freedom of access.
    • 3rd – A second storey accessible by stairways , usually in large subdivisions , glass openings.
    • 4th – Above this, there is an indefinite number of stories for offices. One office is just like the others.
    • 5th – At the top, it is placed a storey that is called the “attic”, filled with tanks, pipes, valves, and etc.

Wainwright Building

(1890-1991)

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 10.03.2009

the chicago school principles4
The Chicago SchoolPrinciples

Decorative elements

Louis Sullivan

  • The use of ornaments and other decorative elements that are considered as the soul and should be developed in line with the building form;
  • It has been noticed that the building consists of 3 parts according to the functions: commercial, office and service;
  • In order to stress the feeling of the height, the vertical organization of the building are much emphasized in the elevation;
  • Example: Guaranty Building, Buffalo, 1895.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 10.03.2009

Guaranty Building, Buffalo, 1895

the chicago school principles louis sullivan
The Chicago SchoolPrinciples: Louis Sullivan

The Auditorium Building - 1898

Carson Pirie Schott Department Store of 1899-1904

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 10.03.2009

the chicago school principles summary
The Chicago SchoolPrinciples: Summary
  • There was a success in terms of making a transition from the masonry bearing wall to the pure steel frame, which assumed the entire carried load bearing functions. The building’s skeleton could be therefore erected very quickly and the remaining components hung on it to be completed: an immense advantage for the design of high-rise buildings on a busy-street development.
  • Some of the distinguishing features of the Chicago School are the use of steel-frame buildings with masonry cladding allowing large plate-glass window areas and the use of limited amounts of exterior ornament.
  • Some elements of the neo-classical architecture are actually adopted in the Chicago School skyscrapers. Many of these do indeed contain the three parts of a classical column. The first floor functions as the base, the middle as stories, usually decorated with little ornamental detail acting as the shaft of the column, and the last floor or so represents the capital, with more ornamental details and caped with a cornice.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008

the chicago school principles summary1
The Chicago SchoolPrinciples: Summary
  • Here is the Chicago window of importance originated in the Chicago School. It is a three part window consisting of a large fixed centre panel flanked by two smaller double-hung sash windows. The arrangement of windows on the façade typically creates a grid pattern, with some projecting out from the façade forming bay windows.
  • The Chicago window combined the need for light-gathering and the need for natural ventilation; a single central pane that was usually fixed, while the two surrounding panes were operable. These windows were often deployed in bays, known as oriels windows that projected over the street.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008