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Middle Childhood – Physical . Physical Growth Brain development Physical Issues of Middle Childhood Obesity Physical activity Newspaper assignment . Middle Child Physical Growth. Slow & steady growth extension of early pattern, bones lengthen, broaden Add 2-3 inches and 5 lbs per year

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middle childhood physical
Middle Childhood – Physical
  • Physical Growth
  • Brain development
  • Physical Issues of Middle Childhood
    • Obesity
    • Physical activity
  • Newspaper assignment

Class 11 Early Child Physical

middle child physical growth
Middle Child Physical Growth
  • Slow & steady growth
    • extension of early pattern, bones lengthen, broaden
    • Add 2-3 inches and 5 lbs per year
  • Secular trends:
    • we have seen increases in children’s body size
      • From one generation to the next
      • by about 1/3 inch per decade 1970s to 1990s
      • Due to improved health and better nutrition
    • Now increases in height slowing,
    • But increases in weight are continuing

Class 11 Early Child Physical

middle child motor skills
Middle Child Motor Skills
  • Gross Motor Skills
  • Improvements in:
    • flexibility, balance, agility, strength

Class 11 Early Child Physical

middle child motor skills1
Middle Child Motor Skills
  • Improvements in basic skills continues:
    • Activities in playground contribute to motor skills
      • Climbing - stairs, ladders, ropes, monkey bars
      • Hanging – arms or knees on bars
      • Swinging – rings or rope –Tarzan
      • Rolling – summer saults
      • Jumping - take-offs & landings
      • Upper body supports
      • – gymnastics - bars

Class 11 Early Child Physical

middle child motor skills2
Middle Child Motor Skills
  • Developmental issues
  • The playground skills require child to have:
    • Strength, flexibility, balance etc
    • Also: risk–taking and self-confidence
    • Parents are often fearful of letting child go
    • But kids -be encouraged to take sensible risks
      • Sometimes called self-testing skills
        • Can I do it? How good am I?

Class 11 Early Child Physical

middle child motor skills3
Middle Child Motor Skills

Class 11 Early Child Physical

fine motor skills
Fine motor skills
  • Fine motor skills are refined

Class 11 Early Child Physical

six year old s drawing
Six-Year Old’s Drawing

Class 11 Early Child Physical

eight year old s drawing
Eight-Year Old’s Drawing

Text page 419

Class 11 Early Child Physical

ten year old s drawing
Ten-Year Old’s Drawing
  • Complex
  • Perspective
    • Far objects smaller
  • Overlapping figures
    • Interesting placement
  • Use of colour

Text page 419

Class 11 Early Child Physical

changes in brain development
Changes in brain development
  • new MRI methods of observing the brain in action

Class 11 Early Child Physical

changes in brain development1
Changes in brain development

Total brain volume

  • brain is 90% of adult size by age six.
  • head circumference changes through childhood
    • Can see child who wears an adult’s hat,
    • Boys add about 2 inches and
    • Girls 1.9 inches in diameter from age 4 to age 18.
  • due mostly to an increase in skull thickness, not brain size (Giedd, 2004).

Class 11 Early Child Physical

white matter
White matter
  • consists of myelinated axons, fatty sheath
    • speeds transmission between neurons
      • 100 times faster than unmyelinated neurons.
    • white matter increases through childhood
    • by same amount in all major lobes of the brain
        • frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital.
  • white matter is important to development
    • Allows child to integrate activities across different areas of brain

Class 11 Early Child Physical

white matter1
White matter
  • Eg, better white connections between
    • hippocampus & frontal cortex:
      • better memories of past events
      • help them make decisions.
    • Broca’s area (speech production) & Wernicke’s (understanding):
      • improve children’s understanding
      • & interpretation of language
      • & faster verbal responses.

Class 11 Early Child Physical

corpus callosum
Corpus callosum
  • connects right and left hemispheres of the brain
    • consists of 180 million myelinated axons,
  • develops from front to back,
    • so anterior reaches adult size earlier than the posterior section.
  • important for any brain activity benefiting from interhemispheric integration, such as
    • improvement in bimanual motor skills,
    • unification of sensory fields,
    • improved memory storage and retrieval,
    • attention, arousal,
    • language function,
    • creativity, and more complex cognitive abilities.

Class 11 Early Child Physical

subcortical gray matter
Subcortical gray matter

Basal ganglia - central role in control of

    • movement, higher cognitive function, attention & affective states
  • Caudate nucleus – motor inhibition, implicit learning
    • larger in females (smaller caudate in males)
    • may relate to male-predominant disorders: ADHD & Tourette’s
  • Amygdala - emotion regulation
    • contains more androgen than estrogen receptors,
    • increases in size only in males (smaller amygdala in females).
  • Hippocampus - in memory formation - context dependent
    • contains more estrogen receptors
    • increases only in females (smaller hippocampus in males).
  • May account for sex differences in emotional disorders
      • depression and anxiety (greater in females)
      • learning difficulties (greater in males) (Giedd, 2004).

Class 11 Early Child Physical

cortical gray matter
Cortical gray matter
  • Gray thickens & thins over childhood
    • As child adapts to social environment & experiences
    • reflects changes in size & complexity of neurons,
    • not a change in the number of neurons.
    • Longit studies - curvilinear inverted–U pattern of gray
  • Arborization: Thickening when cells grow bushier
    • extra branches & more connections with other neurons.
  • Pruning: Thinning when connections not used
    • use it or lose itprinciple,
    • eliminates redundant synaptic connections
    • & speeds cognitive processes.
    • Earliest in sensorimotor, last in dl prefrontal
      • forcomplex thinking.

Class 11 Early Child Physical

summary
Summary

Changes in brain over childhood:

  • Allow children to inhibit responses
    • characterizes transition to mature performance
    • and enhanced brain function.
    • are not influencing the emergence of responses
  • improve their higher level cognition
    • modulate emotions, think flexibly & inhibit impulses
  • But they don’t always show mature brain function.
    • may be vulnerable to fail under demanding situations,
    • or when they are distracted or unmotivated.

Class 11 Early Child Physical

obesity in childhood
Obesity in Childhood

Obesity

  • weight 20%+
    • higher than healthy wt
  • BMI ≥ 30.
    • Wt/Ht ratio
    • body mass index

Class 11 Early Child Physical

obesity trends
Obesity Trends

Figure of obesity trends text page 411

Class 11 Early Child Physical

obesity
Obesity
  • Prevalence of obesity:
    • Berk: 15% of Canadian children are obese
    • Self reports:boys:9%; girls: 10%
      • Canada: CCHS 2000–2001 survey data
    • Is increasing: 1981->1996: doubled.
  • Prevalence of overweight Canada:
    • BMI ≥ 25 – 29 for 7 - 13 yr olds:
    • Self reports:boys:20%; girls: 17%
    • Is increasing: 1981->1996: almost doubled.

Class 11 Early Child Physical

obesity1
Obesity
  • Nova Scotia study (Veugelers & Fitzgerald, 2003).
    • Measured 4300 grade 5s
      • 97% of schools across province
    • ht, wt, & risk factors
  • Obesity: 33%; overweight: 10%
  • Risk factors for being overweight:
    • Not eating vs eating breakfast: 50% more likely
    • Buying lunch vs bringing lunch to school: 47% more
    • Having family supper 3-4 times vs 1- times/wk: 30% less
    • Eating in front of TV, 1- times vs 5+ times/wk: 40% less

Class 11 Early Child Physical

obesity2
Obesity
  • Health issues:
  • Obesity tracks into adulthood
    • Over 80% of obese children will become obese adults
    • reduces life expectancy, makes for poorer quality life
    • Hypertension, high cholesterol
    • Type 2 diabetes, Osteoporosis
  • Mental health problems
    • eg, self- esteem, depression, social isolation
    • Feeling unattractive, clumsy
    • Stereotyping and teasing

Class 11 Early Child Physical

obesity3
Obesity
  • Why do you think the numbers of overweight or obese children continue to rise?

Class 11 Early Child Physical

tv viewing childhood obesity
TV Viewing & Childhood Obesity

Figure of TV watching test page 408

Class 11 Early Child Physical

obesity4
Obesity
  • Treating obesity
    • Is a family affair, need parents input
      • Kids may try crash diets but go back to old habits
    • Focus is on changing family behaviours
      • Change in eating habits &
      • Daily exercise
      • Reinforcement for progress – time with parent

Class 11 Early Child Physical

obesity5
Obesity
  • Schools - How can schools help?
  • Communities – What factors and policies would help?

Class 11 Early Child Physical

physical activity
Physical activity
  • Developing habit of activity in childhood important
    • time to lay foundation for future health.
    • If inactivity established in childhood, habit will carry into adulthood
  • But only ~ 33% of children meet guidelines for optimal growth and healthy development.
    • Children’s habitual physical activity levels are low &
    • rates decline dramatically from child to adolescence.

Class 11 Early Child Physical

physical activity1
Physical activity
  • Children’s fitness
    • identified as issue neglected by parents & schools.
    • Benefits of physical activity: numerous & diverse
  • Health:
    • reduces the risk of premature mortality ,
    • coronary heart disease, hypertension,
    • colon cancer, osteoporosis,
    • obesity, diabetes.
  • Provides skills: aids self-confidence, self-esteem
  • Offers opportunities for friends, social acceptance

Class 11 Early Child Physical

physical activity2
Physical activity
  • Problem:
  • 80 - 90 % parents believe their children have “good” Activity Levels
    • In recent report: Canada’s report card on physical activity for children and youth 2006, by Healthy Active Kids Canada.
  • But < half Canadian children & teens
    • meet minimum daily physical-activity standards
    • of 90 min/day of moderate to vigorous exercise
    • Moderate exercise: eg walking.
    • Vigorous exercise: eg running, climbing, or swimming.

Class 11 Early Child Physical

participation in organized sport
Participation in organized sport
  • Participation in organized sport:
    • by 40- 50% of kids in Canada
      • at least 2 - 3 times per week.
      • Fewer girls (41%) than boys (48%)
    • Most kids participate at least once
      • Baseball, soccer, football, hockey
    • Differences by SES:
      • Fewer from low SES families (38%)
      • than in middle (44%)
      • & high SES families (50%).

Class 11 Early Child Physical

participation in unstructured sports
Participation in unstructured sports
  • at home or in neighbourhood
    • protects vs overweight & obesity
  • Recommendation:
    • children participate 2 – 3+ times/wk
    • only ~ 2/3 Cdn kids do it that often.
  • Lower participation by girls:
    • Girls 20% less likely than boys
    • 72% for boys vs. 54% for girls.
  • SES:
    • Only small difference in rate

Class 11 Early Child Physical

going on your own to school
Going “on your own” to School

Active transport to school is down.

  • In Canada (2004) parents report
    • Walking to school - declined to 23%.
      • 36% in 1998.
    • Cycling - consistent at less than 10%
      • almost 90% of children own a bicycle.
    • Riding school bus - increased to 54%.
      • 43% in 1998
    • Driven in family car - consistent at 20%.
  • In NS study: Walking or biking to school:
    • ~ 15% - 39% less likely to be overweight

Class 11 Early Child Physical

physical education in school
Physical Education in School
  • Recommended phys ed as standard: 150 min/wk
  • Required phys ed in MB (2004): 60 min/wk
    • Only 805 of all schools in Canada meet standard
      • Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (CAHPER)
  • Parents believe kids get enough phys ed at school
    • Over half think they get 3 - 4 days/ wk of phys ed.
  • Parents need to be better informed and supported
    • to advocate for more phys ed for their children

Class 11 Early Child Physical

screen time
Screen time
  • Leisure time use - TV & computer combined
  • Recommendations for screen time:
      • by Canadian Paediatric Society & US Academy of Pediatrics
    • Children: no more than 2 hrs/day
    • Preschoolers: no more than 1 hr/ day.
  • Excessive screen time
    • Means less chance for physical activity
    • Linked to health problems,
      • poor eating habits, obesity, high BP, poor bones
    • Linked to psychological problems
      • body and self-image issues,
      • anti-social behaviour

Class 11 Early Child Physical

screen time1
Screen time

Canadian findings:

  • Only 20% children meet guidelines
    • of 2 hrs or less of screen time
    • regardless of gender and family income.
  • More than 50% children watch 2 - 4 hrs TV/day
  • 33% spend 2+ hrs on leisure time pc use
  • Non-school computer use is rising, but
    • TV viewing remaining consistent

Class 11 Early Child Physical

physical activity3
Physical activity
  • Social factors: for 5 – 12 yrs age group
    • Gender:
      • 30% of girls, 50% of boys are physically active
      • girls consistently 10 - 15% less active than boys.
    • Lower perceived family wealth
      • lower activity levels
    • Family encouragement, involvement
    • But factors not related to lower physical activity:
      • unemployment rates, education, & average income.

Class 11 Early Child Physical

increasing physical activity
Increasing physical activity
  • Community/school strategies recommended:
    • Coalition for Active Living
        • http://www.activeliving.ca/
  • Incorporate more physical activity in schools
  • Allow communities to use schools after hours
  • Mandate daily physical education K-12
  • Expand existing programs in community

Class 11 Early Child Physical

increasing physical activity1
Increasing physical activity

More Recommendations:

    • Healthy Active Kids Canada:2006 report
  • Develop public awareness
    • on importance of unstructured physical activity & play
    • active (on your own) transportation to school
  • Ensure quality physical education classes
  • Get children to step away from the screen
    • Fill time with play & unstructured family activity.

Class 11 Early Child Physical

parents can play a role
Parents can play a role
  • To ensure their children are physically active
    • They provide skills, values, norms, knowledge that kids need. Parents important at this age.
  • Findings:
    • ~36% parents are physically active with children
      • was 43% in 2000.
    • ~32% parents rarely/never play with kids
      • ie, playing actively in games or sport.
        • 46% of parents with kids 5 - 12 yr
        • 21% of parents of teens 13 – 17yr

Class 11 Early Child Physical

parents can play a role1
Parents can play a role
  • What can parents do to help encourage more physical activity in their children?

Class 11 Early Child Physical

appropriate physical activity
Appropriate Physical Activity
  • Goal: to have fun
    • Build on child’ interests
  • Teach appropriate skills
    • Basic – kick, throw, bat
    • Simple games
  • Limit practices
    • 2 times/wk, 30-60 min
  • Avoid unhealthy competition
    • Let everyone play
  • Allow child to make rules
    • Lets them understand fair play,
    • & others’ perspectives

Class 11 Early Child Physical

websites of interest
Websites of interest
  • http://www.activehealthykids.ca/ Active Health Kids Canada This is the website of a charitable organization committed to advocating the importance of quality, accessible, and enjoyable physical activity experiences for children and youth.
  • http://www.cflri.ca/ The Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute conducts research, monitors trends and makes recommendations to increase population levels of physical activity and improve the health of all Canadians.
  • http://www.phac-aspc.gc.caPublic Health Agency of Canada. Click the Child Health link to read about health issues, child health, injuries, and child abuse in Canada.
  • http://www.cahperd.ca
  • Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. This website promotes physical activity in schools in Canada.

Class 11 Early Child Physical

newspaper clipping
Newspaper clipping
  • Small Groups
  • Summarize your article for your group
  • key developmental issues your article raises
  • Class discussion

Class 11 Early Child Physical