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Gene Regulation. Gene regulation in bacteria and eukaryotes Bacterial cells Grow rapidly and have short life span Transcriptional-level control best Eukaryote cells Long life span Gene regulation complex Transcriptional-level control dominates, but other levels important, also.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
Gene regulation in bacteria and eukaryotes
    • Bacterial cells
      • Grow rapidly and have short life span
      • Transcriptional-level control best
    • Eukaryote cells
      • Long life span
      • Gene regulation complex
      • Transcriptional-level control dominates, but other levels important, also
slide3
Gene regulation in bacteria
    • Most organized into operons
      • Gene complex plus linked DNA
      • Each has single promoter region upstream
    • Operator regulates transcriptional-level control of operon
      • When repressor protein binds to operator, it prevents transcription
      • Binds specifically to the lac operator sequence
slide6
Inducible, repressible, and constitutive genes
    • Inducible operon, such as lac operon, normally turned off
    • Repressible operon, such as the trp operon, normally turned on
    • Constitutive genes
      • Neither inducible nor repressible
      • Active at all times
slide8
Negative regulators inhibit transcription
    • Repressible and inducible operons
    • When repressor protein binds to the operator, transcription is turned off
  • Positive regulators stimulate transcription
    • Some inducible operons
    • Regulated by activator proteins
slide12
Gene regulation in eukaryotic cells
    • Not organized into operons
    • Gene regulation occurs at the levels of
      • Transcription
      • mRNA processing
      • Translation
      • The protein product
slide14
Eukaryotic promoters vary in efficiency, depending on UPEs
    • Promoter consists of
      • RNA polymerase-binding site
      • Upstream promoter elements (UPEs)
    • Number and types of UPEs determine efficiency
    • Inducible eukaryotic genes controlled by enhancers
slide18
Chromosome organization may affect gene expression
    • Genes are inactivated by changes in chromosome structure
    • DNA methylation is mechanism that perpetuates gene inactivation
    • Multiple copies of some genes present in one chromosome
    • Gene amplification
slide19
Differential mRNA processing
    • Cells in each tissue produce own version of mRNA
    • For example, different forms of troponin, a protein that regulates muscle contraction, produced in different muscle tissue