The development of the chemical industry during the industrial revolution
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The Development of the Chemical Industry during the Industrial Revolution. Chemical Industry: What?. This term refers to the manufacturing of chemical products from raw materials (oil, wood, minerals, petroleum, metals, water).

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Chemical Industry: What? Industrial Revolution

  • This term refers to the manufacturing of chemical products from raw materials (oil, wood, minerals, petroleum, metals, water).

  • These chemicals are primarily used for starting materials for consumer goods (plastics, pharmaceuticals, synthetics, etc), pulp and paper industry, metallurgy, textiles, construction materials, agriculture, … matter.

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The Chemical Industry Today Industrial Revolution

  • $3 trillion global business




  • Oral Presentation: include a description of the current state of your industry

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SALT= NaCl Industrial RevolutionPre-Industrial Revolution

  • Eotechnic: Prepare and preserve food and skins

    • Salt from sea required nearby wood then coal for evaporating water (2 tons salt + 97 ton water);

    • Salt from rock salt brine led to fuel being transported to site. (23 tons salt + 76 tons water)

  • Transition to Palaeotechnic: Salt-boiling (diagram on p. 52)

  • Earl of Dundonald’s contributions?

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Ninth Earl of Industrial RevolutionDundonald

  • The Present State of the Manufacture of Salt Explained (data above).

  • Efforts to improve the purification of salt from rock salt.

  • Concerns about hazardous working conditions for women.

  • Reasons for Allowing English Salt to be Brought to Scotland at the Scotch Duty.

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Dundonald Industrial Revolution

  • Involved in production of soda ash (from salt)

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Sources of Salt Industrial Revolution

  • Salt varies as a function of source (sea water, brine and rock salt deposits), location and preparation.


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Palaeotechnic Salt Industry (18 Industrial Revolutionth c)

  • Relationship to other IR developments

    • Coal replaced wood ( @ 1 ton salt produced for 6-10 tons coal)

    • Iron pans replaced of lead (for higher coal burning temps).

    • Extraction of salt from raw materials p 56-57

    • Steam engines were used to pump brine

    • Other industries: textiles, glass, pottery, china...

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Salt Industry Spin-offs Industrial Revolution

  • Chlorine for bleaching (textiles)

  • SO2, HCl, NO, NH3, Cl2, H2S, Na2CO3 (soda), NH4Cl

  • Soap making

  • Medicinal uses

  • Flux in glass-making and metal smelting

  • Pottery glazing

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Salt Industry and Modern Chemical Industry Industrial Revolution

  • How does this remind you of the coal tar industry with its relationship to other industries and all the products it spawned?

  • We will look more closely at the industries of the Industrial Revolution that can be considered precursors of the modern chemical industry.

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Potash Industrial RevolutionPre-Industrial Revolution

  • Pot + Ash: impure form of K2CO3 produced in the burning of wood. (note potassium)

  • Water soluble component of ash; collected by evaporating water in iron pots.

  • Also called alkali (containing carbonates, base).

  • Used in the making of glass, alum, soap, saltpeter, bleach, fertilizer.

  • Ash yield from timber, leaves, roots... Clow p 68

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Timber depletion (why?) led to Industrial Revolution

  • Importation of ash from Europe, Americas

  • The use of other sources of ash: burn salsola soda (“earthy shrub” with berries) to make an ash called barilla from Spain, buy mineral deposits from Egypt, burn nettles, thistles, hemlock, juniper.

  • Intervention of govt: set up investigating committees, repeal duties on imported ash, offer prizes to find another source of ash.

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Yield of Ash from Timber Industrial Revolution(p. 68-69)

  • < 1% ash in wood

  • 2-5% in seeds

  • 4-9% in cereal, hay

  • 4-8% in roots

  • 10-25% in leaves

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Kelp Industrial Revolution

  • When kelp, a certain kind of dried seaweed was burned, ash was produced.

  • This developed along the islands and shores of northern Scotland but only after its price became competitive (later aided by salt tax).

  • Some concerns about kelping. Clow p. 71.

  • Kelp yielded numerous products: NaCl (25%), KCl (3%), Na2CO3, Na2SO4, MgSO4, MgCl2 some of which became profitable commodities.

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Chemicals From Kelp Industrial Revolution

  • Soda ash (Na2CO3) emerged as key compound for several industries.

  • Glass making: Nearly all of the salts in kelp were used in the flux  frit  glass

  • Soap making:

    Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 2NaOH + CaCO3

    Kelp and lime  caustic soda and chalk

  • Sources of these reactants or raw materials?

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More Kelp Products Industrial Revolution

  • Textiles: kelp was used as a raw material for alum to fix dyes on the fabric

    K2SO4 · Al2 (SO4) 3 · 24H2O or

    (NH4) 2SO4 · Al2 (SO4) 3 · 24 H2O

  • Kelp was also used as fertilizer

  • The kelp industry in northern Scotland and the Hebrides reached its peak in 1800. (p. 89)

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Palaeotechnic Industrial Revolution Transition

  • A deeper look into synthesis and commercialization of soda ash, sodium carbonate.

  • An early model for the chemical industry. p. 91-92 handout

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Alternatives to Plant-Based Soda Industrial Revolution

  • As timber was consumed for charcoal, ash and uses in war, the govt offered incentives for new (non-natural resource) sources of ash.

  • Clow identifies two important groups that contributed to solving the ash problem: the Lunar Society and the Ninth Earl of Dundonald. (Our old friend).

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The Lunar Society and Soda Ash Industrial Revolution

  • John Roebuck

  • James Watt

  • Matthew Boulton

  • Joseph Black

  • James Keir

  • Eramus Darwin

  • Josiah Wedgwood

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Ninth Earl of Dundonald Industrial Revolution

  • 1795 patent describing methods to produce soda (alkali) and other chemicals. (p.101-102; i.e. Treatise on the Connection of Agriculture with Chemistry) and

  • Extraction of salt from non-taxed sources (p. 102-103

  • Established chemical works at Walker 1796

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Dundonald Industrial Revolution

  • Commercialization of by-products of soda ash production

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Sea Salt to Soda Ash: The Founding of Chemical Industries Industrial Revolution

  • By 1810, the kelp industry was in decline caused to a large extent by numerous efforts to discover and improve a successful synthetic method of making soda ash from sea salt.

  • The considerable work by members of the Lunar Society and by the Earl of Dundonald illustrate these efforts.

  • When the salt tax was repealed in 1823, the soda ash industry grew enormously. See graph Clow p.112.

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LeBlanc Process Industrial Revolution

  • Most of the synthetic methods were related to the LeBlanc process, 1791 patent.

    2NaCl + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2HCl

    Na2SO4 + CaCO3 + 2C  Na2CO3 + CaS + 2CO2

    Add water to dissolve soda ash, then evaporate water.

    Sources of these raw materials?, pollutants?

    Clow p. 108-109

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Role of Soda Ash Industrial Revolution

  • With a dependable supply (NaCl from the sea, salt brines or mines vs timber, other plants) of soda ash, other industries grew into major enterprises and economic drivers. @ 1823

  • Soda ash: Soap, Textiles and Glass

  • What were these by-products of soda ash production used for: CuS, FeS, CuSO4, FeSO4, HCl, HNO3, Cl2, CaCl2?

  • Clow p. 92

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A Small Revival (an aside) Industrial Revolution

  • The 1812 discovery of Iodine in kelp revitalized the kelp industry but only to a small extent.

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The Downside of the Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution

  • Many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution were accompanied by increased air and water pollution, hazardous working conditions, toxic products and by-products.

    • The LeBlanc synthesis of soda ash from sea salt.

    • Steam engine

    • Metallurgy

    • etc

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Addressing Detrimental Chemical By-Products Industrial Revolution

  • The seeds of Green Chemistry