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Emotions and Health. EMOTIONS. Distinct Emotions Approach: 10+ Basic emotions. Joy, Interest/excitement, Surprise, Sadness, Anger, Disgust, Contempt, Fear, Shame, Guilt.

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Emotions

and

Health


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EMOTIONS

Distinct Emotions Approach: 10+ Basic emotions

Joy, Interest/excitement, Surprise, Sadness, Anger, Disgust, Contempt, Fear, Shame, Guilt


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You arrive home late, tired and slightly irritated after a hard day of work. You flip on the lights in your bathroom and glance downward at your green toothbrush. There, nestled in the slightly frayed bristles, lies a cockroach, reluctant to move, the insect waves its feelers at you


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Disgust hard day of work. You flip on the lights in your bathroom and glance downward at your green toothbrush. There, nestled in the slightly frayed bristles, lies a cockroach, reluctant to move, the insect waves its feelers at you

Highly adaptive, often food-related

Marked by aversion towards something distasteful

Ensures people select & reject appropriate food

Facial expression:

* wrinkling nose

* gaping expression

But psychology of disgust extends beyond role in food recognition

=> model for acquisition of values


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Would you use toothbrush again? hard day of work. You flip on the lights in your bathroom and glance downward at your green toothbrush. There, nestled in the slightly frayed bristles, lies a cockroach, reluctant to move, the insect waves its feelers at you

….even if it was dropped into boiling water & sterilized?


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Paul Rozin hard day of work. You flip on the lights in your bathroom and glance downward at your green toothbrush. There, nestled in the slightly frayed bristles, lies a cockroach, reluctant to move, the insect waves its feelers at you

Thirsty subjects would not drink glass of juice with sterilized cockroach in it

But some people even refused to drink other juice poured into a different glass after witnessing this.


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“Sympathetic magic” hard day of work. You flip on the lights in your bathroom and glance downward at your green toothbrush. There, nestled in the slightly frayed bristles, lies a cockroach, reluctant to move, the insect waves its feelers at you

People believe that when two objects come into contact they acquire like properties

Contagion

Not a conscious, rational processes

Fundamental, universal process

(although some disgust elicitors are cultural)

Dog Soup

(Korea)


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Disgust Elicitors: 4 broad categories hard day of work. You flip on the lights in your bathroom and glance downward at your green toothbrush. There, nestled in the slightly frayed bristles, lies a cockroach, reluctant to move, the insect waves its feelers at you

1. Core disgust elicitors

Objects potentially capable of contaminating foods

Roaches, flies, feces


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Disgust Elicitors: 4 broad categories hard day of work. You flip on the lights in your bathroom and glance downward at your green toothbrush. There, nestled in the slightly frayed bristles, lies a cockroach, reluctant to move, the insect waves its feelers at you

2. Animal-reminder disgust elicitors

Reminders of animal origins

=> threatens sense of mortality

“Terror Management Theory”

E.g., death, poor hygiene, bizarre forms of sexual behavior


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Disgust Elicitors: 4 broad categories hard day of work. You flip on the lights in your bathroom and glance downward at your green toothbrush. There, nestled in the slightly frayed bristles, lies a cockroach, reluctant to move, the insect waves its feelers at you

3. Sociomoral disgust

Emotional reaction due to moral sense

E.g., rape, violence, murder


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Disgust Elicitors: 4 broad categories hard day of work. You flip on the lights in your bathroom and glance downward at your green toothbrush. There, nestled in the slightly frayed bristles, lies a cockroach, reluctant to move, the insect waves its feelers at you

4. Interpersonal disgust

From contact with someone of unsavory origins

E.g., would you wear sweatshirt that had been worn by serial murder Jeffrey Dahmer

Caste system, in India: 3,500-yr-old system based on degrees of dirt and disgust.

Untouchables perform most disgusting tasks (gravediggers, street sweepers)

Higher castes reluctant to eat food handled by lower caste


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Fear hard day of work. You flip on the lights in your bathroom and glance downward at your green toothbrush. There, nestled in the slightly frayed bristles, lies a cockroach, reluctant to move, the insect waves its feelers at you

Adaptive response

Why so many fears?

* can learn to fear almost anything

* e.g., cars, flying, failure, mice


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Lab-reared hard day of work. You flip on the lights in your bathroom and glance downward at your green toothbrush. There, nestled in the slightly frayed bristles, lies a cockroach, reluctant to move, the insect waves its feelers at you

Wild-reared

Fear

Susan Mineka:

Learning by observation

  • Wild monkeys afraid of snakes

  • lab monkeys NOT afraid of snakes


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Fear hard day of work. You flip on the lights in your bathroom and glance downward at your green toothbrush. There, nestled in the slightly frayed bristles, lies a cockroach, reluctant to move, the insect waves its feelers at you

Predisposed to some fears

* Snakes, spiders, cliffs

* But NOT cars, electricity, bombs


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Components of emotions hard day of work. You flip on the lights in your bathroom and glance downward at your green toothbrush. There, nestled in the slightly frayed bristles, lies a cockroach, reluctant to move, the insect waves its feelers at you

E.g., Fear (experience) associated with

increased heart rate (among other things)

wide eyes, clenched teeth, etc.

E.g., Happiness (experience) associated with

decrease in heart rate (decreased arousal)

smile

But…what comes first?


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Do we smile because we are happy or are we happy because we smile?

Three theories of emotion provide different answers….

All agree that emotions related to autonomic nervous system & body in general


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Sight of smile?

oncoming

car

(perception of

stimulus)

Pounding

heart

(arousal)

Fear

(emotion)

1. James-Lange Theory

Interpretation of event evokes autonomic changes in body=>emotion arises from perception of these changes

* contrasts with common sense view!

* e.g,. We decide we are sad because we cry, smiling makes us happy

Different patterns of autonomic response elicit different emotions (e.g., “butterflies” & anxiety)

But is this plausible?


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Pounding smile?

heart

(arousal)

Sight of

oncoming

car

(perception of

stimulus)

Fear

(emotion)

2. Cannon-Bard Theory

  • Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger:

    • physiological responses

    • subjective & cognitive aspects of emotion


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3. Schacter-Singer two-factor theory smile?

Schacter-Singer Experiment

 injected student volunteers with hormone epinephrine (mimics effects of arousal for 20-30 mins.)

·     subjects told either:

o    would have physiological effect

o    would not have physiological effect

·     subjects in either:

o    euphoria conditon (playful confederate)

o    anger condition (insulting questionnaire)

“which member of your immediate family does not bathe or wash regularly”

“with how many men (other than your father) has your mother had extramarital relationships? 4 or fewer, 5-9, 10 or more”

·     subjects not warned about physiological arousal attributed it to either euphoria or anger


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3. Schacter-Singer two-factor theory smile?

Situation determines cognitive appraisal, which determines the emotion

Physiological arousal determines intensity of emotion


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“Misattribution of arousal” smile?

Dutton & Aron, 1974


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Condition 1: High bridge smile?

Condition 2: Low bridge

39% called woman

9% called woman

Implications for horror movies, amusement-park rides, etc.


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Facial Feedback Theory (Ekman) smile?

Subjects directed to pose expressions

Sensory feedback from the expression contributes to the emotional feeling




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What are Emotions? smile?

  • What are emotions?

    • A motivated state consisting of

      • Physiological arousal

      • Expressive behaviors

      • Cognitive/Conscious Experience

  • Nature and Nurture side:

    • Everyone has emotions  Nature side

    • Culture affects how we express them  Nurture side


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Joy smile?

Surprise

Anger

Contempt

Shame

Interest – Excitement

Sadness

Disgust

Fear

Guilt

The 10 Basic Emotions:


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Biopsychology of Emotion: smile?

  • The Brain: Key Areas

    • Limbic System

      • Fighting, Fleeing, Feeding, Mating

    • Important Parts:

      • Hypothalamus – Changes in breathing/heart rate during “fight-or-flight”

      • Amygdala – Fear and Rage

      • Septum – Thin membrane in center of ventricle

        • Suppresses negative emotional states (e.g., fear)

    • Also: Frontal Lobe – “brake system” for amygdala


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Biology & Emotion: smile?

  • With Arousal:

    • Autonomic NS kicks in and

    • Sympathetic NS activated

    • Epinephrine and Norepinephrine are released

    • Heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar rise, preparing us for fight or flight

    • When we can calm down, parasympathetic NS kicks in


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Interesting Facts: smile?

  • Positive emotions activate the left hemisphere more, while negative emotions activate the right hemisphere more.

  • Arousal and stress can actually help us, up to a certain point.

    • After we reach that point, performance declines

    • The point is different for easy and difficult tasks


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Performance smile?

level

Difficult tasks

Easy tasks

Low

Arousal

High

Yerkes-Dodson Curve:


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More Cool Facts: smile?

  • Body language can convey a *lot* of information!

  • Body language and gestures mean different things in other cultures

    • Eye contact

    • “thumbs up” in Australia, Ghana “Up yours”

    • “OK sign” in Brazil  Obscene

  • Facial expressions are similar all over the world – “Nature” component


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Health smile?

How do our emotions affect our health?


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Stress smile?

  • Stressor: event or stimulus that threatens an organism’s physical or psychological well-being

  • Coping mechanism: response by the threatened organism to minimize or avoid the effects of the stressor

  • Stressors may elicit the

    “fight or flight” repsonse


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General Adaptation Syndrome smile?

  • Alarm stage: immediate emergency response

    • Fight or flight

  • Resistance stage: prepared for longer attack

    • Immune system increases to max capacity

  • Exhaustion stage: body systems fail

    • Physiological and immune systems cannot maintain elevated response any longer

    • Resistance drops below normal levels, leaving the organism very vulnerable


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Cortisol: The Stress Hormone smile?

  • Cortisol produces many of the body’s physiological responses to stress

  • Converts protein to glucose for energy

  • Regulates inflammation from injury

  • Activates sympathetic nervous system


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Stress smile?

  • Sex differences in response to stress

    • Males: fight or flight

      • withdrawal

    • Females: tend and befriend

      • nurturing


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Stress and Health smile?

  • Long term effects of stress

    • Heart disease

    • Immune deficiency

    • Decreased sexual interest

    • Growth problems

    • Reduced bone density

    • Reduced muscle mass

    • Blood sugar imbalances

    • Cancer

  • Caused by chronically

    high cortisol levels


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How to Cope with Stress: smile?Boosting Your Immune System

  • Get plenty of rest

  • Exercise regularly, outdoors when possible

    • At least 4 times a week for 30 minutes

  • Practice meditation or yoga

  • Laugh as much as possible

  • Eat lots of fruits and vegetables

    • At least one a day from each of the seven color groups

    • One serving per 20 lbs of body weight


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Eat for Immunity smile?

  • Purple/Red: Grapes, grape products (red wine, grape juice), prunes, cranberries, blueberries, blackberries, strawberries, red peppers, plums, cherries, eggplant, red beets, raisins, red apples, red pears

  • Red: Tomatoes, pink grapefruit, watermelon

  • Orange: Carrots, mangos, apricots, cantaloupes, pumpkin, acorn squash, winter squash, sweet potatoes

  • Orange/Yellow: Orange juice, oranges, tangerines, yellow grapefruit, lemon, line, peaches, papaya, pineapple, nectarines

  • Yellow/Green: Spinach, collard, mustard greens, turnip greens, yellow corn, avocado, green peas, green beans, green peppers, yellow peppers, cucumber, kiwi, romaine lettuce, zucchini, honeydew melon, muskmelon

  • Green: Broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, bok choi, kale

  • White: Bananas, garlic, onions, leeks, celery, asparagus, artichoke, endive, chives, mushrooms


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The Importance of Touch smile?

Evolutionary perspective

  • Most primate species spend about 20% of their time grooming each other

    • Hygienic and social functions

  • In humans, language replaced grooming about 50,000 years ago

    • We spend 20% of our day talking


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The Importance of Touch smile?

  • Language is very recent; the vast majority of human evolution occurred prior to the development of language

  • Our immune systems (and endocrine systems) evolved in a context of constant contact with other (grooming)

  • Touching other humans boosts the immune system (particularly skin to skin contact)

  • Also regulates growth, hormones, and development


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The Importance of Touch smile?

  • Psychosocial dwarfism

    • “Failure to thrive”

    • Condition in which infants who are not touched and held fail to develop

    • Orphanages

  • Modern lifestyles

  • Kangaroo care


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Touching and Psychological Health smile?

  • Societies which have higher levels of affection between parents and children and which do not punish premarital sex have much lower levels of violence than societies which are less affectionate and in which premarital sex is punished

    • A study of 49 modern hunter-gatherer societies found that in 48 of them, the levels of violence and aggression could be accurately predicted by levels of affection and whether premarital sex is permissible

    • Among industrialized nations, high touch cultures such as France have much lower violence/homicide rates than low touch cultures such as the United States

      • The homicide rate in the U.S. is up to 22 times as high as the rate in France!


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Massage Therapy smile?

  • Reduces aggression, hostility, and anxiety

  • Reduces chronic pain (back, legs, etc.)

  • Improves attentiveness and cognitive performance

  • Improves neuromuscular function

  • Improves sleep patterns

  • Improves immune system functioning

  • Reduces the likelihood of relapse in cancer patients


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Why Massage Therapy Works smile?

  • Massage therapy helps regulate serotonin and dopamine levels

    • Dopamine regulates motivation and pleasure

    • Serotonin decreases substance P (pain) and regulates sleep and mood

  • Massage therapy decreases cortisol levels

    • High cortisol levels kill natural killer cells, the front line of the immune system

    • Decreased cortisol → increased natural killer cells → better immune functioning


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What to focus on from Chapter 10 smile?

  • How emotions are adaptive

  • Facial expressions

  • Theories of emotion

  • Physiological and neurological components of emotions (sympathetic nervous system)

  • Stress

  • The immune system

  • Behaviors affecting health (smoking, diet, exercise, etc.)