Chapter 4 Basic Life Support: Artificial Respiration. 4.1 Respiratory Distress . Respiratory distress- An abnormal condition where breathing is labored, noisy, irregular, or unusually fast or slow, or a combination of these Respiratory arrest- Total cessation of breathing or respiratory effort.
Respiratory distress- An abnormal condition where breathing is labored, noisy, irregular, or unusually fast or slow, or a combination of these
Respiratory arrest-Total cessation of breathing or respiratory effort
1. A victim of respiratory distress may have skin that is
either pale, flushed, or ____________. (dry/hot/bluish)
2. Basic life support describes the procedures needed
to ____________ in an emergency.
(summon help/sustain life/reverse damage)
3. Brain cells begin to die within ____________ minutes
after being deprived of oxygenated blood.
1. Determining unresponsiveness
2. Activating the EMS system
3. Positioning the victim and opening the airway
If you do not suspect cervical spine injury:
1.Place the tips of the fingers of one hand underneath the lower jaw on the bony part near the chin; put your other hand on the victim’s forehead and apply firm, backward pressure.
2. Bring the chin forward, supporting the jaw and tilting the head backward
3. Lift the chin so the teeth are nearly brought together; use your thumb to keep the mouth slightly open
1. Facing the top of the victim’s head, place your elbows on the surface on which the victim is lying, your hands at the sides of the victim’s head.
2. Grasp the jawbone on both sides where it angles up toward the victim’s ears. Move the jaw forward and upward.
3. Retract the lower lip with your thumb if the
1. The crucial first step in basic life support is ____________.
(opening the airway/assessing the victim/activating the EMS system)
2. Tap the victim on the shoulder and ask if he or she is okay to determine ____________. unresponsiveness/breathlessness/arrest)
3. Before you open the airway, the victim should be in a ____________ position. (prone/supine)
4. During the head-tilt/chin-lift maneuver, maintain backward pressure on the victim’s ____________. (chin/forehead)
5. In the jaw-thrust maneuver, you bring the victim’s ____________ forward instead of tilting the head
6. To assess for breathlessness, ____________ for the chest to rise and fall. (feel/look)
7. To assess for breathlessness, ____________ for air escaping during exhalation. (listen/feel)
8. To assess for breathlessness, ____________ for breath against your cheek. (feel/listen)
1.Remove anything covering the stoma, such as a tie, scarf, or jewelry; clear the stoma of any foreign matter.
2. NO head tilt on a victim with a stoma—simply use one hand to pinch the victim’s nose and close the victim’s mouth. Pinch off the nose between your third and fourth finger, and seal the lips with the palm of your hand.
Face shield- A barrier device that covers a victim’s mouth
Face mask- A barrier device that covers a victim’s mouth and nose
Inadequatebreathing- Breathing that is too slow or shallow to support life
Stoma- A surgical opening in the neck
1. The most effective form of artificial ventilation is ____________.
2. Deliver two full, slow rescue breaths, each one lasting about ____________ seconds. (2/3/4)
3. Perform rescue breathing at the rate of about ____________ breaths per minute. (10/12/14)
4. The most common cause of ventilation difficulty is ____________.
(insufficient air/obstructed airway/improper positioning of the head and
5. Decompress gastric distention only if you cannot ____________ because of the inflated stomach. (see the chest rise and fall/ventilate the victim)
6. If the victim is an infant or child, ventilations should be faster and more ____________. (shallow/forceful)
Gastric distention- Inflation of the stomach with air
Aspiration- Breathing foreign matter into the lungs
1.Stand behind the victim - wrap your arms
around the victim’s chest
2. Position the thumb side of your fist on the middle
of the breastbone
3. Seize your fist firmly with your other hand, and
thrust backward sharply. Repeat
4. If the victim is or becomes unconscious, place the
victim on his or her back -give distinct, separate thrusts downward and toward the head
1. The most reliable sign of complete airway obstruction is ___________.
(cyanosis/a snoring sound during breathing/complete inability to speak)
2. The Heimlich maneuver is an abdominal thrust delivered just below the ____________. (sternum/diaphragm/rib cage)
3. During the Heimlich maneuver, your thumb should be positioned slightly above the ____________. (xiphoid process/diaphragm/navel)
4. If the victim with an obstructed airway is unconscious, the victim should be positioned on the ____________. (back/side/stomach)
5. If the victim with an obstructed airway is a conscious infant, you should first do ____________. (back blows/chest thrusts/a finger sweep)
6. If the victim with an obstructed airway is an unconscious infant, you should first do ____________. (back blows/chest thrusts/a finger sweep)