Mo Review • What was Reconstruction? • How did some Northerners disagree over the nature of Reconstruction? • Was Presidential Reconstruction hard or easy on the South? • Describe Presidential Reconstruction. • What were some good things about Presidential Reconstruction? • What were some bad things about Presidential Reconstruction? • Why might some people in the North not like Presidential Reconstruction?
Review • Was Congressional Reconstruction easy or hard on the South? • Describe Congressional Reconstruction. • Why might some people in the South not like Congressional Reconstruction? • What were the 13th , 14th and 15th amendments to the Constitution? • What were the Black Codes and why did they make the Radical Republicans mad? • Why was President Andrew Johnson impeached?
Today’s Objectives • How white southerners respond to Congressional (or radical) Reconstruction. • How white southerners prevented blacks from voting in the South. • How and why the KKK was formed. • How and why Reconstruction came to an end.
South during Reconstruction • ¼ of whites can’t vote. • Many African American elected to state legislatures. • Also 20 in House of Reps. & 2 in Senate. • Never a majority.
Freedmen in Govt. • Try to implement ambitious program: public schools, internal improvements, poor relief, etc. • Massive increase in spending. • Lots of corruption (also in North).
White Southerners’ Spin • “Bayonet Rule” • Incompetent Blacks are running things. • Corrupt “Carpetbaggers” taking advantage of the situation.
Southern Terms during Reconstruction • Scalawags = Southerners who go along with Reconstruction. • Carpetbaggers = Northerners who came down to the South to participate in Reconstruction or take advantage of the South while it was down. • Redeemers = Southerners who sought to make the South how it had been.
The Birth of the KKK • Ku Klux Klan = A white Supremacist organization organized to terrorize Freedmen. • Founded in 1866 in Tennessee. • Originally organized by ex-confederate soldiers.
Sharecropping • Economic system in the South that replaces slavery. • Former plantation owners agree to let Freedmen farm on their land in return for a portion of what they grow. • Problem is, that to get started, Freedmen need to borrow seeds, supplies, food, etc. (the Plantation owner usually provided these things too). • The Freedmen, therefore, started in debt and never really got out.
How Redeemers Regain political Control of the South. • Southerners who oppose Reconstruction are in the Democratic Party—Why? • KKK used violence to keep many Freedmen (and white Republicans) from voting. • Redeemers come up with literacy tests,poll taxes, and Grandfather Laws to get around the 15th- Amendment and prevent Freedmen from voting.
Use violence/poll-taxes/literacy tests, eventually keeps many blacks and carpetbaggers from voting. • By 1872, almost all whites could vote again. • By 1874, all but 3 southern states had been “redeemed.”
The End of Reconstruction • By 1877, Democrats had regained control of all of the Southern state Governments. • People in the North have grown tired of Reconstruction. • Corruption scandals hurt the Republican party. • The Presidential election of 1876—between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden--is disputed. • Democrats agree to let Hayes (a Republican) win if he agrees to remove the troops from the South.
South after Reconstruction • Called the “New South” • Most blacks can’t vote. • Most blacks are poor sharecroppers. • Almost all whites are Democrats (the “Solid South”). • Segregation beings —separate facilities for blacks and whites (Jim Crow Laws).
Review • What was the cause of the sectional tension between the North and the South that eventually led to the Civil War? • Who won the Civil War? • Who was President of the North? • Who was President of the South?
Who were “scalawags”? • Who were “Redeemers”? • Who were “Carpetbaggers”? • Who were the KKK? • How did the Redeemers regain control of southern state governments?
What was the controversy surrounding the presidential election of 1876? • How did the election of 1876 officially end reconstruction? • Describe the South after Reconstruction ended? • Was Reconstruction a success or failure?