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Marketing Research. Aaker, Kumar, Day Ninth Edition Instructor’s Presentation Slides. Chapter Eight. Information Collection: Qualitative and Observational Methods. Marketing Research. Marketing Research. Primary. Secondary. Qualitative. Quantitative. Qualitative. Quantitative.

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marketing research

Marketing Research

Aaker, Kumar, Day

Ninth Edition

Instructor’s Presentation Slides

chapter eight
Chapter Eight

Information Collection: Qualitative and Observational Methods

marketing research3
Marketing Research

Marketing Research







information collection qualitative and observational methods
Information Collection : Qualitative and Observational Methods

Qualitative Methods

  • Recommended to capture the basic feel of a problem prior to conducting more analytical study

Observational Methods

  • Limited to providing information on current behavior

qualitative research methods
Qualitative Research Methods


  • Conducted primarily to explicitly define the problem and formulate hypotheses


  • To learn more about target customer (e.g. Culture, language)


  • To gain insights into topics that are difficult in a structured research

qualitative research methods6
Qualitative Research Methods

Four major constraints:

    • Volume of data
    • Complexity of analysis
    • Detail of clarification record
    • Time-consuming nature of the clerical efforts required
  • Computer technology helps alleviate these problems and

increase the use of qualitative research

use of computers in qualitative research
Use of Computers in Qualitative Research
  • Transmitting
  • Storing
  • Coding
  • Searching and Retrieving
  • Building Relationships
  • Matrix Building

individual in depth interviews
Individual In-depth Interviews
  • Nondirective interviews
    • Respondent given maximum freedom to respond
  • Semi-structured or focused individual interviews
    • Covers a specific list of topics or sub-areas
  • Individual in-depth interview techniques
    • Laddering
    • Hidden-issue
    • Symbolic Analysis

focus group discussions
Focus Group Discussions
  • Offers participants more stimulation than an interview; makes new ideas and meaningful comments more likely
  • Issues to be addressed:
    • Outlining the intended direction of the group
    • Explaining how participants were recruited
    • Re-educating observers on the concepts of random selection, statistical reliability, and projectability of research results

focus group discussions10
Focus Group Discussions


types of focus groups
Types of Focus Groups

Exploratory Focus Groups

  • Used in the exploratory phase of the market research process
  • Used for generating the hypotheses for testing

Clinical Focus Groups

  • Based on the premise that an individual's true feelings and motivations are subconscious in nature

Experiencing Focus Groups

  • Allows the researcher to experience the emotional framework in which the product is being used

key factors for focus group success
Key Factors for Focus Group Success
  • Planning the Agenda
  • Recruitment
  • Moderator
  • Analysis and Interpretation of the Results

ten tips for running a successful focus group
Ten Tips for Running a Successful Focus Group
  • You can never do too much planning for a focus group
  • Manage the recruitment process actively to get the right people in the groups
  • Don’t prejudge the participants based on physical appearance
  • The best focus group moderators bring objectivity and expertise to a project
  • Achieving research objectives does not guarantee a successful group project
  • The moderator and client should coordinate their efforts at all stages of the process for the research to achieve its objectives

ten tips for running a successful focus group cont
Ten Tips for Running a Successful Focus Group (cont.)
  • Most client organizations conduct more focus groups than

are necessary to achieve the research objective

  • One of the most important services a moderator can

provide is a fast report turnaround

9. Client observers should be thoroughly briefed about research objectives before the sessions start

10. The most valuable service a moderator can provide is objective conclusions based on the interpretations of the research, without regard for what the client wants to hear

trends in focus groups
Trends in Focus Groups
  • Telephone Focus Groups
  • Video Conference
  • Two-way focus groups
  • Online focus groups

projective techniques
Projective Techniques
  • Presentation of an ambiguous, unstructured object, activity, or person that a respondent is asked to interpret and explain.
  • Categories of Projective Techniques:
      • Word Association
      • Completion Test
      • Picture Interpretation
      • Third Person Techniques
      • Role Playing
      • Case Studies

limitations of qualitative methods
Limitations of Qualitative Methods
  • Potential susceptibility of the results to get misused or misinterpreted
  • Results not necessarily representative of the whole population
  • Moderator or interviewer's role is extremely critical and can lead to ambiguous or misleading results

observational methods
Observational Methods
  • Casual Observation
  • Systematic Observation
  • Direct Observation
  • Contrived Observation
  • Content Analysis
  • Physical Trace Measures
  • Humanistic Inquiry
  • Behavior Recording Devices

limitations of observational methods
Limitations of Observational Methods
  • Cannot be used to observe motives, attitudes or intentions
  • More costly and time consuming
  • May yield biased results if there are sampling problems or if significant observant subjectivity is involved

recent applications of qualitative and observational methods
Recent Applications of Qualitative and Observational Methods
  • Talking Shopper program by Pathfinder Research Group
  • Virtual Customers system for evaluating service quality
  • On-site observation to observe and learn customer purchase decisions as they are being made