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MINAMATA, JAPAN. April Banayan, Eli Lloyd, Jonathan Berger. MAP OF MINAMATA. Causes:. Cultural: Culturally dependent eating seafood Social: Seafood cheap and accessible to poor Japanese Physical: Minamata city’s Chisso Co. dumped toxic materials into the bay Methyl mercury chloride.

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minamata japan


April Banayan, Eli Lloyd, Jonathan Berger

  • Cultural:
    • Culturally dependent eating seafood
  • Social:
    • Seafood cheap and accessible to poor Japanese
  • Physical:
    • Minamata city’s Chisso Co. dumped toxic materials into the bay
      • Methyl mercury chloride
effect on environment
Effect on Environment:
  • Death of fish
  • Mercury in sludge and ocean water
  • Water sources ruined
effects on humans
Effects on Humans:
  • Disease of central nervous system (Minimata disease)
  • Mercury poisoning
  • 36.7 mortality rate
  • Loss of sensation and eventual death
  • Convulsions
how did they fix the problem
How did they fix the problem?
  • Kumamoto University began to research the disease
  • Found animals with same problems realized it dealt with food
  • Fish main diet traced back to ocean
  • Compensation of patients
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Prevention of Pollution-related Health Damage
  • Rules and regulations for pollution and dumping into the ocean
  • Companies like Chisso under more scrutiny
  • Water and food sources have been cleaned
  • Now facing pollution from other sources like nuclear reactors
  • Regulations placed on fishing industry
the london fog

The London Fog


Ashley Aviram, Paul Park, DaniellaShoenburg

why did this occur
Why did this occur?!?!?
  • A mass of stagnant air had collected above the sky of London, trapping all the pollutants in the air
  • The cold weather present during that time meant millions of Londoners would be burning more coal than usual
  • Vehicle exhaust also contributed to the pollution, especially the diesel-fueled buses
environmental effects
Environmental Effects :(
  • Poor visibility – people could not see past a few yards

I cant see!!!!

effects on humans1
Effects on Humans :(
  • An estimated 12,000 people died
  • Most of the victims were young, old, or had had respiratory problems
  • About 25,000 people became ill
  • Luckily, a change of weather removed the stagnant air and the Big Smoke dispersed


  • New regulations were created to restrict the use of dirty fuels and black smoke
  • Clean Air Act of 1956 and 58
    • banned emissions of black smoke
    • residents of urban areas and operators of factories must convert to smokeless fuels
  • The London Fog lasted only from 12/5/52 to 12/9/52, so it does not exist today 
  • Smog is also less prominent due to the new laws 
  • http://www.environmentaltrends.org/single/article/flashback-air-quality-trends-before-1970.html
  • http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=873954
  • http://www.martinfrost.ws/htmlfiles/great_smog.html
  • http://www.nickelinthemachine.com/2008/11/a-proper-pea-souper-the-terrible-london-smog-of-1952/
three mile island

By: Shawn Hakakian

Jonny Lalezari

David Hakakian

sequence of certain events
Sequence of Certain Events











enivironmental effects

-Most radiation contained-Some radioactive gas released

-Low radiation levels released-Water/plants cleaned

effect on humans






5-mile radius cleared

10-mile radius, stay at home, windows closed.

problem fixed
Problem Fixed

-60 workers

-Cooled it down, shut it off-High pressure water injection

-Restarted one reactor coolant pump


-Better operator training/ instruction.-Emergency preparedness-NRC public report requirement-Additional monitoring equipment

-High standards by INPO

current environmental status
Current Environmental Status

- TMI-2 Reactor Permanently shut down-Radioactive water decontaminated-Waste/Debris shipped off-site.-Long term monitored storage-TMI-2 will run once TMI-1 plant operating license expires


-"Three Mile Island | TMI 2 |Three Mile Island Accident." World Nuclear Association | Nuclear Power - a Sustainable Energy Resource. Web. 06 Oct. 2011. <http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf36.html>.

-"Three Mile Island: The Rest of the Story..." Potassium Iodide Pills Anti-Radiation Pill & Nuclear Emergency FAQ. Radiation Detectors, Meters, Geiger Counters & Potassium Iodine Iodate Pills. Web. 06 Oct. 2011. <http://www.ki4u.com/three_mile_island.htm>.

-"NRC: Backgrounder on the Three Mile Island Accident." NRC: Home Page. Web. 06 Oct. 2011. <http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/3mile-isle.html>.

-"A Nuclear Nightmare -- Printout -- TIME." Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - TIME.com. Web. 06 Oct. 2011. <http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,920196,00.html>.

chernobyl ukraine

Chernobyl, Ukraine

Nuclear Disaster



Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located in Ukraine, 20km south of the border with Belarus.

causes of disaster
Causes Of Disaster

26 April 1986

  • Caused by inexperienced staff working at the Chernobyl Power Plant
  • The staff wanted to test reactor 4 but another power plant went down
  • The Chernobyl plant had to produce more power than it was supposed to so it could compensate
  • The night staff who were less experienced thought they could test the reactor, but did not know that you couldn’t test while it was producing double the power
  • The emergency shutdown mechanism couldn’t stop the plant, and their Geiger counters weren’t advanced enough to tell them how high the radiation levels were
  • The crew stayed 3 days after the explosion not knowing the high radiation levels, as they were attempting to pump water into the reactor to control it
effect of disaster on the environment
Effect Of Disaster On The Environment
  • Largest uncontrolled radioactive release in environment residentially and large amounts of radioactive substances released into the air
  • Deposited in the urban areas near the power plant
  • The deposition of radioactive iodine contaminated agricultural plants, grazing animals
  • Particularly contaminated mushrooms and berries
  • Radioactive materials from Chernobyl deposited on rivers, lakes and some water reservoirs
  • The radioactive materials released by the accident had immediate harmful effects on plants and animals living within 20 to 30 km of the Chernobyl power plant
effect of disaster on humans
Effect Of Disaster On Humans
  • The current death toll =1 million people
  • Around 1800 children ages 0 to 14 were diagnosed with Thyroid Cancer
  • Up to 2.4 million Ukrainians had negative effects on their health
  • Explosion effected all of Europe
  • Higher rates of Birth defects have been linked to disaster
what is being done to fix this problem
What Is Being Done To Fix This Problem?
  • During the first years, settlements in contaminated regions of the USSR were cleaned up at a very high cost
  • In order to reduce long term contamination of milk and meat with radioactive cesium, the animals were fed crops that would trap the radioactive chemicals
  • Between May and November 1986, a Shelter was built to contain the damaged reactor to prevent further release
  • The overall plan for the long term development of the Exclusion Zone is to make the less affected areas available for use by the public.
prevention of future disasters
Prevention Of Future Disasters
  • The Soviet Union and, later, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) spent large amounts of money to deal with clean-up and repair.
  • To prevent the release of more radiation a Shelter was quickly built to contain the damaged reactor. (Problems become apparent with the first shelter and a new “more durable” shelter is being built.)
  • New Safe Confinement (NSC) should provide more than 100 years of service life and is planned to cover over the existing Shelter.
current environmental status of area
Current Environmental Status Of Area
  • Large amounts of radioactive waste was generated and placed in temporary near-surface waste storage and disposal facilities.
  • An “exclusion Zone” was created extending up to 30 km in all directions around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.
  • Restrictions have been placed on fresh water, hunting, and forest products (berries, mushrooms, and firewood) in the areas surrounding Chernobyl.
  • Since the disaster, the radiation levels have reduced significantly, but are still very high.
  • Although some animals have returned, very few people go there.
  • "Causes of the Chernobyl Disaster | Chernobyl-Disaster.com." The Chernobyl Disaster | Chernobyl-Disaster.com. Http://www.chernobyl-disaster.com/. Web. 04 Oct. 2011. <http://chernobyl-disaster.com/causes-of-chernobyl-disaster.php>.
  • "Chernobyl Global Radiation Patterns." Web. 04 Oct. 2011. <http://users.owt.com/smsrpm/Chernobyl/glbrad.html>.
  • Fernandez, Marisa. "Scientific Facts on the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident." Green Facts - Facts on Health and the Environment. Green Facts' Scientific Board, 12 Apr. 2006. Web. 04 Oct. 2011. <http://www.greenfacts.org/en/chernobyl/index.htm>.
  • Preuss, Simone. "Chernobyl 1984-2009: Then and Now | Environmental Graffiti." Popular | Environmental Graffiti. Environmentalgraffiti. Web. 04 Oct. 2011. <http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/featured/chernobyl-then-now/14634>.
  • "WHO | Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident: an Overview." Www.who.int. World Health Organization, Apr. 2006. Web. 04 Oct. 2011. <http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs303/en/index.html>.
hiroshima japan

Hiroshima, Japan


NatanDorenbaum, Andrew Loewy, Jacob Roeder, Jack Wagner

map and general area
Map and General Area
  • Capital of Hiroshima Prefecture
  • First city destroyed by nuclear bomb
causes why hiroshima
Causes (Why Hiroshima?)
  • Was a major army depot and port in an urban industrial area
  • US believed that the bomb would save more lives than destroy than if their was a full invasion
  • Large part of city would be effected
effects on t he environment
Effects On The Environment
  • Air pollution from radioactive debris
  • Water sources were pollutedby radioactive particles
  • Agricultural production was damaged
  • Soil polluted and ruined
    • Dead stalks of rice could be found up to 7 miles from ground zero
effects on humans2
Effects On Humans
  • Wiped out 90% of Hiroshima
  • 100,000 people immediately killed
  • Between 100,000-200,000 people died in all from both immediate death and radiation sickness later on
      • Hair loss, nose bleeds, fever, nausea, death, etc.
  • Feelings of fear, confusion, and hatred
what is being done to fix the problem
What is Being Done to Fix the problem?
  • Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war
  • Proclaimed a city of peace
  • Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Construction law was passed and provided financial assistance for reconstruction
  • “Atomic Dome” is the closest building to ground zero that survived and became the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park

Atomic Dome

  • International Atomic Energy Agency established to encourage peaceful applications of nuclear tech
  • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty prohibits all testing of nuclear weapons

International Atomic Energy Agency Symbol

environmental status
Environmental Status
  • Background radiation now at normal levels
  • Population today-about 1.12 million
  • City was rebuilt and is a major urban center
  • Now one of Japans largest supplier of nuclear power… how ironic

Works Cited

"Environmental Effects of War." Water Treatment and Purification - Lenntech. Web. 06 Oct. 2011. <http://www.lenntech.com/environmental-effects-war.htm>.

"Hiroshima, 64 Years Ago - The Big Picture - Boston.com." Boston.com - Boston, MA News, Breaking News, Sports, Video. Web. 06 Oct. 2011. <http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2009/08/hiroshima_64_years_ago.html>.

"Hiroshima Plant | Environmental Conservation | Elpida Memory." Elpida Memory, Inc. Web. 06 Oct. 2011. <http://www.elpida.com/en/environment/hiroshima.html>.

"Nuclear Files: Timeline of the Nuclear Age: 1945." Nuclear Files - From Nuclear Proliferation to Nuclear Testing, from Hiroshima to North Korea, Nuclear Files Offers the A to Z on Nuclear Issues. Web. 06 Oct. 2011. <http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/timeline/timeline_page.php?year=1945>.


Kill a Sparrow Campaign

Presented by: Rebecca Nourafshan, AriellaMahgerefteh, and Ashley Emrani


Map of China

China was the country which was affected by the “Kill a Sparrow Campaign”


Causes of Disaster

  • Initiated in 1958 as a hygiene campaign by Mao Zedong
  • Zedong identified the need to exterminate mosquitoes, flies, rats, and sparrows
  • Tried increasing rice yields
  • Culturally influenced by TVB drama series Rosy Business
  • -peasant came up with idea of killing sparrows to improve agricultural output

Effects of Disaster on Environment

  • Increase in insects and worms since their predators (sparrows) died off
  • One of China’s greatest locus invasions of history
  • Crops died from being eaten by an abundant amount of pesticides

Effect of Disaster on Humans

  • Famine
  • 30-43 million deaths resulted from starvation

What’s being done to Fix the Problem?

  • Mao ordered end  to campaign against sparrows replacing them with bed bugs
  • Too late
  • Locust population increases
  • Increases ecological problems caused by Great Leap Forward 
  •      -widespread deforestation
  •      -misuse of poisons and pesticides
  • Great Chinese Famine
  •      -more than 30 million died of starvation 

How to Prevent Future Disasters

  • This disaster was easily preventable
  • Humans shouldn’t get involved with nature
  • In the future, humans should allow natural regulation to take its course

Current Environmental Status of China

  • STILL did not stop: in 1998 had campaign to kill cockroaches instead of sparrows
  • June 19, 1998: poster at Southwest Agricultural University in Chongqing
  • Cockroaches instead of sparrows
  • Similar campaign in the spring of 1998 in Beijing


  • Liker, András. "Site of Sparrows - Dark Era of Sparrows." Sparrows. Web. 04 Oct. 2011. <http://sparrow.elte.hu/mao.htm>.
  • Summers-Smith, J. Denis (1992). In Search of Sparrows. London: Poyser. pp. 122–124. ISBN 0-85661-073-9.
  • McCarthy, Michael (2 August 2006). "The secret life of sparrows". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/the-secret-life-of-sparrows-410252.html. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  • Shapiro, Judith Rae (2001). Mao's War Against Nature: Politics and the Environment in Revolutionary China. Cambridge University Press. ISBN0521786800.
  • Dikotter, Frank (2010). Mao's Great Famine. New York: Walker & Co.. p. 188.
love canal
Love Canal
  • Mix 82 Chemicals
  • Place in Canal for 25 Years
  • Yield: Sickness + Death
background information
Background Information
  • Love Canal – neighborhood in Niagara Falls, NY
  • Used as Toxic Waste Dump by Niagara Falls & US Army in WWII
  • 1942 - Hooker Electrochemical Company dumped waste in the canal
  • Growing population - over 85000
  • City needed land for new schools
  • Hooker Chemical Company sold the land for $1
  • City of Niagara Falls warned of toxicity, but still bought land
effects on environment
Effects on Environment
  • Vegetation died
  • Water contaminated
  • Canal began to crack
effects on humanity
Effects on Humanity
  • Chemicals seeped into homes
  • Miscarriages
  • Birth Defects: Physical & Mental
  • Contaminated Breast Milk
  • High rate of cancer
what s being done in response
What’s Being Done in Response?
  • Government relocated > 800 families
  • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act passed
  • Occidental Petroleum (H.E.C) fined $129 Million
  • Most toxic areas reburied + fence built
current status of love canal
Current Status of Love Canal
  • Today less than 90 of the original 900 families remain.
  • Most of the toxins in soil remain
  • Toxic rain
  • Dean, Cornelia. "Superfund News - The New York Times." Times Topics - The New York Times. 06 Oct. 2011. Web. 06 Oct. 2011. <http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/subjects/s/superfund/index.html>.
    • "Love Canal Follow-up Health Study - April 2002." New York State Department of Health. Web. 06 Oct. 2011. <http://www.health.state.ny.us/environmental/investigations/love_canal/402news.htm>.
  • "Love Canal Superfund Site | Region 2 | US EPA." US Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 06 Oct. 2011. <http://www.epa.gov/region2/superfund/npl/lovecanal/images.html>.
gulf of mexico oil spill

Gulf Of Mexico (Oil Spill)

By: Brian Aminpour

Chanel Taghdis

causes of disaster1
Loss of control over the pressure in the well

Failure of wells blowout preventer

Blowout preventers emergency functions failed to seal the well causing leak

Social cause: Huge amounts of oil found underwater

Practice underwater drilling, has since been halted

Wanted oil for technological advances

Causes of Disaster
effect of disaster on environment
Effect of Disaster on Environment
  • Oil gushing for 3 months into the gulf
  • Fire burned for 36 hours and hydrocarbons leaked into gulf
  • Infects the food chain
  • Affects life forms in the ocean
  • Kills turtles, fishes, and other endangered species
  • Layering areas of ocean floor with deposits
effect of disaster on humans1
Effect of Disaster on Humans
  • Oil spills take a toll on human communities
  • Eleven people died and others were injured
  • Damage caused to livelihoods of those living in the communities that were affected
  • Fisheries closed
fixing the problem
Fixing the Problem
  • $17.7 billion for response activities
  • Cleaning up and restoring the gulfs beaches with new technologies
  • Wildlife groups developed rescue programs for wildlife
  • Compensating individuals, businesses, and other agencies
  • The conservancy is expanding our work project to restore ecological infrastructure
prevention of future disasters1
Companies like earth justice try to stop the expansion of offshore drilling

Force federal agencies to do their jobs instead of depending on BP Oil company

National institute of health conducting studies on health effects and educating people

New technology which monitor for the presence of oil in water

Prevention of Future Disasters
current status of area
Current Status of Area
  • The oil has stopped flowing
  • Large scale restoration is needed for: marshes, oyster beds, and coastal forests
  • The fisheries have now re-opened
  • Demand for oil grows
  • http://earthjustice.org/features/preventing-more-bp-type-oil-disasters?gclid=CMTa__Ob0KsCFQdzgwod4TwMVQ
  • http://www.bp.com/sectionbodycopy.do?categoryId=41&contentId=7067505
  • http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/northamerica/areas/gulfofmexico/gulf-of-mexico-1-year-after-the-oil-spill.xml