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  1. Chapter Photo

  2. Chapter Transparency

  3. International boycotts were used to pressure South Africa to end apartheid—a complete separation of the races. In 1976, the UN asked its members to boycott trade with South Africa and stop competing against South Africa’s athletes. Section 1 DYK

  4. I. The Transition to Independence (page 678) • A. During the 1950s and 1960s, most black African nations gained their independence from European colonial rule. The Gold Coast, renamed Ghana and led by Kwame Nkrumah, was the first former British colony to gain independence in 1957. B. In South Africa, where European settlers dominated the political system, the process of gaining independence was complicated. In 1912, local blacks had organized the African National Congress (ANC). Section 1 DLN-1

  5. I. The Transition to Independence (page 678) • C. By the 1950s, South African whites, known as Afrikaners, had strengthened the laws separating whites and blacks. This system of racial segregation was known as apartheid. D. Blacks demonstrated against apartheid laws in South Africa. In 1962, ANC leader Nelson Mandela was arrested. Members of the ANC called for armed resistance to the white government. Section 1 DLN-2

  6. II. The New Nations (pages 679–682) • A. Most leaders of the newly independent African nations came from the urban middle class, were educated in the United States or Europe, and believed in using the Western democratic model in Africa. Section 1 DLN-4

  7. II. The New Nations (pages 679–682) • B. The economic ideas of the African leaders was diverse. Some leaders, such as Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, believed in Western-style capitalism. Other leaders, such as Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, believed in an “African form of socialism.” This was based on African traditions of community in which ownership of the country’s wealth would be put into the hands of the people. Jomo Kenyatta, third from left, meets with African leaders in 1964 in Nairobi Section 1 DLN-5

  8. II. The New Nations (pages 679–682) • C. Some African leaders believed in Pan-Africanism—the unity of all black Africans, regardless of national boundaries. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) was a result of Pan-Africanism. This organization helped African unity by settling border disputes. D. After independence, most African nations still relied on a single crop or natural resource for export. Liberia depended on the export of rubber, Nigeria on oil. When prices dropped, their economies suffered. African states had to import technology and manufactured goods from the West. Section 1 DLN-6

  9. II. The New Nations (pages 679–682) • E. Scarce resources were and are misspent, but population growth was and is the main crippler of African economies. Africa has the highest rate of population growth—nearly 3 percent—among the continents. F. Drought conditions in West and East Africa have led to widespread hunger and starvation. Additionally, most African nations must import food but cannot afford to import and distribute enough for everyone. Finally, war and political instability have disrupted farming and food distribution networks. Section 1 DLN-7

  10. II. The New Nations (pages 679–682) • G. AIDS, caused by the HIV virus, is an epidemic in Africa. Twenty-five million of the 38 million people infected worldwide live in Africa south of the Sahara, representing 8 percent of the adult population of Africa. H. The AIDS epidemic is creating millions of orphans—at least 12 million—and the traditional extended family support system has been overwhelmed. Section 1 DLN-8

  11. II. The New Nations (pages 679–682) • I. Since the boundaries of African nations had generally been arbitrarily drawn by colonial powers, many African nations had warring ethnic groups. Most states included widely different ethnic, linguistic, and territorial groups. J. In the late 1960s there was a civil war in Nigeria between northerners and the Ibo people they were killing. The Ibo fled to the eastern part of Nigeria and declared an independent state, Biafra. After two and a half years of war, Biafra surrendered. Section 1 DLN-9

  12. II. The New Nations (pages 679–682) • K. In central Africa, two new countries were created in 1962: Rwanda and Burundi. The Hutu people were dominant in Rwanda, and the Tutsi people dominated in Burundi. When Hutus in Rwanda began to kill thousands of Tutsis there, the Tutsis fled. L. In 1994 a violent civil war broke out in Rwanda and about 500,000 people, mostly Tutsis, were killed in a genocide campaign. When the Tutsis gained control, hundreds of thousands of Hutus fled, mostly to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Section 1 DLN-10

  13. II. The New Nations (pages 679–682) • M. To put down Hutu militias, Tutsis invaded the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1998. Up to 3.5 million people died of hunger and disease created by the war. N. In the Darfur region of western Sudan, government-backed Arab militias stand accused of ethnic cleansing and genocide against African tribal groups. By 2004, tens of thousands have been killed and several million need acute assistance. Section 1 DLN-11

  14. Section 1 DLN-12

  15. III. New Hopes (page 683) • A. In recent years, popular demonstrations have led to the collapse of one-party regimes and the emergence of democracies in several African countries. In some cases, however, the fall of the regime has been followed by bloody civil war. Section 1 DLN-14

  16. III. New Hopes (page 683) • B. Nelson Mandela had been sentenced to life imprisonment in 1962 for his activities with the ANC. In 1985 he was offered a conditional freedom. Mandela refused. Nobel Peace prize winner Bishop Desmond Tutu and others worked to free Mandela and end apartheid. In 1990 Mandela was released from prison. In 1994 Mandela became South Africa’s first black president. Section 1 DLN-15

  17. IV. Society and Culture in Modern Africa (pages 684–685) • A. Most African cities today, influenced by earlier colonial rule, look like cities elsewhere in the world. B. Most Africans live in rural areas much as their ancestors did, in thatched dwellings without modern plumbing and electricity. They farm or hunt by traditional methods, wear traditional clothing, and practice traditional beliefs. Section 1 DLN-17

  18. IV. Society and Culture in Modern Africa (pages 684–685) • C. Although most African women are allowed to vote and run for political office, few hold political offices. They have fewer career opportunities than African men have. D. Many contemporary African artists face the dilemma of finding a balance between Western techniques and training and the rich heritage of traditional African art forms. Many writers such as Chinua Achebe use this dilemma as the theme of their works. Section 1 DLN-18

  19. The intifada was a campaign of civil disobedience by Palestinians living in Israel. This civil disobedience caused world opinion to put pressure on Israel to meet with Palestinians to try to find a peaceful solution to the conflicts there. Section 2 DYK

  20. I. The MiddleEastandPalestine(pages 689–691) • A. After World War II, new independent states emerged in the Middle East. Most were Muslim. B. In 1948, the creation of Israel made Arab-Israeli conflict a certainty, as both groups claimed Palestine as their own. When part of Palestine became Israel, many Arab nations refused to recognize its right to exist. The failure to establish a homeland for the Palestinians has contributed to terrorist attacks. Section 2 DLN-1

  21. I. The MiddleEastandPalestine(pages 689–691) • C. In the early 1950s, Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser took control of Egypt’s government. In 1956, Nasser seized the Suez Canal Company, which had been under British and French administration. Great Britain, France, and Israel attacked Egypt, starting the Suez War of 1956. The United States and the Soviet Union supported Egypt and Britain, France, and Israel were forced to withdraw. Section 2 DLN-2

  22. I. The MiddleEastandPalestine(pages 689–691) • D. Nasser promoted Pan-Arabism, or Arab unity. But many other leaders were suspicious of Pan-Arabism. They did not want to share oil revenues with poorer states in the Middle East. E. During the 1950s and 1960s, the disputes between Israel and other states in the Middle East became more heated. In 1967, Nasser blockaded Israeli shipping through the Gulf of Aqaba. This led to the Six-Day War, in which Israel occupied the Sinai Peninsula and tripled the size of its territory, controlling land in the West Bank, Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights. Arab states demanded that Israel return the occupied territories. Section 2 DLN-3

  23. I. The MiddleEastandPalestine(pages 689–691) • F.Anwar el-Sadat succeeded Nasser in 1970. In 1973, Sadat led Arab forces against Israel. A U.N. negotiated cease-fire agreement ended the attack in 1974. G. In 1960, many Arab oil-producing states formed the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to gain control over oil prices. H. In 1973, oil price hikes led to oil shortages and serious economic problems in the United States and Europe. Section 2 DLN-4

  24. I. The MiddleEastandPalestine(pages 689–691) • I. In 1979, Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin signed the Camp David Accords—an agreement ending the state of war between Egypt and Israel. Many Arab countries continued to refuse to recognize Israel, however. J. In 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed to represent the interests of the Palestinians. At the same time, al-Fatah, headed by PLO leader Yasir Arafat, launched terrorist attacks on Israeli territory. Section 2 DLN-5

  25. I. The MiddleEastandPalestine(pages 689–691) • K. During the 1980s, Palestinian Arabs began a movement called the intifada, or uprising. L. In 1993, Israel and the PLO reached an agreement calling for Palestinian autonomy in certain areas of Israel. In return, the PLO organized Israel. Section 2 DLN-6

  26. Section 2 DLN-7

  27. II. Turmoil in Iran and Iraq (pages 691–692) • A. In the 1950s and 1960s, Iran was a chief ally of the United States. Ruled by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and blessed by abundant oil, Iran was a wealthy nation. B. Many devout Muslims Iranians did not approve of the shah’s government, associating it with American influence. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini led the opposition to the shah, who fled the country in 1979. Section 2 DLN-9

  28. II. Turmoil in Iran and Iraq (pages 691–692) • C. An Islamic republic, led by Khomeini, was established. In November 1979 militants seized 52 Americans in the American embassy in Tehran and held them hostage for over a year. The 1979 hostage crisis symbolized the aggressive attitude of the new Islamic republic in Iran. Section 2 DLN-10

  29. II. Turmoil in Iran and Iraq (pages 691–692) • D.Saddam Hussein had ruled Iraq since 1979. Iran and Iraq have had disputes over religious differences and territory. E. In 1980, Saddam Hussein launched a brutal war on Iran in which he used children to clear minefields and poison gas on civilians. A cease-fire was signed in 1988. F. Khomeini died in 1989 and Iran’s government loosened restrictions. In the mid-1990s, however, a new wave of government repression began. Section 2 DLN-11

  30. Terrorist groups can be found worldwide and have not limited their attacks to their own countries. By May 2003 the U.S. State Department had designated 36 Foreign Terrorist Organizations. Section 3 DYK

  31. I. Modern Terrorism (pages 694–697) • A. Terrorists do not believe that organizing and negotiating will achieve their goals. Instead, they bomb, hijack, and take hostages to intimidate states and institutions. B. The goals of terrorists vary. Some, like the Irish Republican Army(IRA), want to create their own state or expand national territory. Others, called state-sponsored terrorists, work for one nation to undermine the government of another. Section 3 DLN-1

  32. I. Modern Terrorism (pages 694–697) • C. One cause of modern terrorism is the clash of modern and traditional Islamic cultures. Another cause is the ease of which extremists can stir up resentment against wealthy societies among the poor. D. Finally, some experts suggest that terrorism would be rare if the Israeli-Palestinian conflict could be solved. The leader of the PLO, Yassir Arafat, died in 2004. There are hopes that a new leader will be more successful in negotiating with Israel. Section 3 DLN-2

  33. I. Modern Terrorism (pages 694–697) • E. Since World War II most terrorist attacks have been carried out by Middle Eastern groups against Western countries. F. Terrorists have targeted the United States because of the role Americans have played in enriching the ruling families through the purchase of oil, while most ordinary people remained poor. Additionally, as Western ideas spread in the Middle East, fundamentalist Muslims began to call for the overthrow of pro-Western governments in an attempt to preserve their idea of a pure Islamic society. Section 3 DLN-3

  34. I. Modern Terrorism (pages 694–697) • G. The United States was also targeted due to their political and financial support of Israel. H. Beginning with Iran in 1979, the movement for a conservative Islamic society spread to other Muslim countries. I. Women’s roles in the Muslim world, which had been expanding in the 20th century, have been severely limited since the onset of the conservative movement. Section 3 DLN-4

  35. I. Modern Terrorism (pages 694–697) • J. After World War II, the king of Afghanistan sought assistance for his country from the Soviet Union. By 1978, Soviet-friendly leaders were in power who were opposed by Afghans who wanted an Islamic state. In 1979 the Soviets invaded and set up Babrak Karmal as prime minister. K. The Americans, fearful of Soviet expansion, supported the Islamic Afghans. Osama bin Laden, a wealthy Saudi Arabian, founded al-Qaedain 1988. Al-Qaeda recruited Muslims and sent money and arms to Afghanistan. Section 3 DLN-5

  36. I. Modern Terrorism (pages 694–697) • L. The Afghan fighters defeated the Soviet Union. Bin Laden, who felt that Western ideas had contaminated Muslim societies, dedicated himself to driving Westerners out of Muslim countries. M. In 1996 the Muslim fundamentalist Talibantook control of Afghanistan. Bin Laden began using Afghanistan to build al-Qaeda. In 1998, bin Laden called on Muslims to kill Americans, and his followers killed 224 people at American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. Section 3 DLN-6

  37. I. Modern Terrorism (pages 694–697) • N. President Clinton responded by launching missile attacks against terrorist facilities in Afghanistan and Sudan. In October 2000 al-Qaeda bombed the American warship USS Cole. In 1999 and 2000, the U.N. Security Council’s demands that the Taliban turn over bin Laden were refused. Section 3 DLN-7

  38. Section 3 DLN-8

  39. II. The Attack of 9/11 (pages 697–698) • A. On September 11, 2001, thousands of people were killed in an attack on American targets directed by Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda. B. In October 2001 President Bush launched an attack on Afghanistan’s ruling Taliban regime, focusing the strikes on al-Qaeda bases. By December the Taliban government, based in the capital of Kabul,had collapsed. An afghan man rides through a ruined Kabul in November 2001. Section 3 DLN-10

  40. II. The Attack of 9/11 (pages 697–698) • C. The U.S. and its allies worked with Afghan leader to create a new government. Hamid Karzai was chosen as president but faces great challenges, including poverty and political instability and fighting. D. In October 2001, the U.S. passed the Patriot Act. This controversial antiterrorism bill led some Americans to debate how much privacy they were willing to sacrifice in exchange for protection against attacks. E. In November 2002 the Department of Homeland Security was established to coordinate antiterrorism efforts. Section 3 DLN-11

  41. III. The Iraq Factor (pages 698–699) • A. In January 2002, President Bush warned Americans of an “axis of evil” composed of Iraq, Iran and North Korea. These countries, according to Bush, sponsored terrorism and were developing weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). Section 3 DLN-13

  42. III. The Iraq Factor (pages 698–699) • B. President Bush considered Iraq the most immediate threat. Saddam Hussein had used chemical weapons twice. He had also invaded Kuwait in 1990, leading to the first Gulf War. He was pushed out of Kuwait by U.S.-led forces but remained in power. In 1991 U.N. inspectors found evidence that Iraq was developing biological and nuclear weapons. The U.N. Security Council called for Iraq to disarm—resolutions Iraq repeatedly violated. Section 3 DLN-14

  43. III. The Iraq Factor (pages 698–699) • C. By the summer of 2002, President Bush was trying to gain U.N. support for a war against Iraq. He made it clear that if the U.N. did not pass a resolution demanding that Iraq give up its WMDs that the U.S. would act without U.N. support. In October Congress gave President Bush authorization to use force. Section 3 DLN-15

  44. III. The Iraq Factor (pages 698–699) • D. In November the U.N. passed the resolution and sent weapons inspectors into Iraq. Not wanting to wait, Bush asked the U.N. for a resolution of war. France and Russia refused. The U.S., with the support of Great Britain and others, prepared for war. Antiwar protesters around the world said that war on Iraq was not justified. Section 3 DLN-16

  45. III. The Iraq Factor (pages 698–699) • E. On March 20, 2003, the U.S.-led coalition attacked Iraq. On May 1, President Bush declared victory. About 140 Americans had died. F. In January 2004 Bush’s top weapons inspector said that the U.S. was operating with flawed intelligence and doubted that large stockpiles of weapons existed. Section 3 DLN-17

  46. III. The Iraq Factor (pages 698–699) • G. Though many Iraqis were happy that Saddam Hussein was no longer in power, they were unhappy about the continued U.S. and British presence. Even after Saddam’s capture in December 2003, guerrillas continued to attack. H. Though officially over in May 2003, by November 2004 approximately 1,251 American soldiers had died. Rebuilding Iraq is very costly. Section 3 DLN-18

  47. III. The Iraq Factor (pages 698–699) • I. On June 28, 2004, the U.S. had officially transferred sovereignty to Iraq. Iyad Allawi became Iraq’s interim prime minister. Rebuilding Iraq’s infrastructure and achieving a stable government present large challenges for the Iraqi people. Iyad Allawi (center), Iraq’s interim prime minister, on a state visit to Jordan in July 2004. Section 3 DLN-19

  48. Chapter Summary • In the postwar period, Africa and the Middle East faced many challenges that threatened their stability. Terrorism challenged the peace and security of all nations in the modern world. Chapter Summary

  49. celebrating its newly granted freedom scornful The former colonial powers are quick to judge Africa without considering the experiences and point of view of Africans. Section Focus 1

  50. The United Nations established it. Support for the Jewish cause grew when people learned of the Holocaust. Many became refugees. Section Focus 2