principles of ecology v hassell n.
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Principles of Ecology V. Hassell. Biology ch 2 . Everything on Earth- air, land, water, plants and animals= is connected. Understanding these connections help us keep our environment clean, healthy and safe. Ecology. Uses qualitative (descriptive) and quantitative research.

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principles of ecology v hassell
Principles of Ecology

V. Hassell

Biology ch 2

  • Everything on Earth- air, land, water, plants and animals= is connected. Understanding these connections help us keep our environment clean, healthy and safe..

Uses qualitative (descriptive) and quantitative research

  • The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment
  • Uses techniques from
  • Math
  • Chemistry, physics, geology
  • Other branches of biology
l evels of organization help scientist understand relationships
Levels of organization help scientist understand relationships.


  • A group of organisms of the same species which can interbreed and live in the same area at the same time
  • Because members of the same population compete with each other for food, water, mates, and other resources.
  • Competition increases when resources are in short supply
communitie s
a group of interacting populations of different species occupying a particular place

a pond community

  • The organisms in a plant population and the biotic and abiotic factors which impact on them.

The area on earth which supports life (where life is found)

  • Thin layer.
  • Supports a diverse group of organisms in a wide range of climates
  • Living things are affected by nonliving and living factors.
ecosystem factors
1. biotic

living or derived from living things

2. abiotic- nonliving factors;

sunlight, temp. water, soil

Ecosystem- Factors
  • Limits of Tolerance conditions under which growth will occur
  • Optimum Range- the best conditions for growth
  • Limiting factors- A nutrient in short supply which limits an organisms growth. It keeps populations from spreading beyond areas to which they are best adapted

2 types of Ecosystems

  • Terrestrial ecosystems- on land
  • Include forest, measows and rotting logs
  • Aquatic ecosystems include fresh water and saltwater forms
  • Fresh water- Includes ponds, lakes, streams
  • Salt water – called Marine ecosystems, make up 70% of earth’s surface
adaptation change
Adaptation & change
  • Organisms must be able to adapt to changing conditions.
  • Coastal organisms spend part of the day underwater.
  • Tides affect salinity (salt content)
organisms in ecosystems habitat
Organisms in EcosystemsHABITAT

Where an organism lives its life

  • Prairie dog- burrows in prairie
  • Birds- nest in trees or on the ground
  • Others- Wetlands, ponds, oceans


  • It is an advantage to have a different nich than other species in the habitat
  • Less competition
  • 2 species with the same needs can’t exist for long together
  • One will gain control
  • Other become extinct, move elsewhere or adapt
surviving in difficult habitats
Surviving in difficult habitats
  • Adaptations to survive in different habitats include
  • Cypress knees
  • Polar bears

Organisms living together in close, permanent association

  • Types
  • Mutualism- both species benefit
  • Commensalism- one species benefits, the other is not affected
  • Parasitism- one benefits, one is harmed
symbiosis commensalism
Symbiosis- Commensalism
  • Spanish moss
  • Orchids
  • barnacles
symbiosis parasitism
Symbiosis- Parasitism

Harmful to one species, beneficial to another

  • Endoparasite
  • Hook worms
  • Do they care if their host dies?
  • Exoparasite- outside
  • Tick, fleas
2 2 objectives
2.2 objectives
  • Compare how organisms satisfy their nutritional needs.
  • Trace the path of energy and matter in an ecosystem
  • Analyze how matter is cycled in the abiotic and biotic parts of the biosphere
how organisms obtain energy
How organisms obtain Energy


  • The ultimate source of energy is the sun
  • Plants use photosynthesis to produce food from light energy.
  • Autotrophs
  • Producers
    • Plants
    • Some protist & algae

Other organisms depend on thes for energy

how organisms obtain energy1
How organisms obtain energy

Consumers are Heterotrophs

  • Can not make its own food
  • Obtain nutrients by eating other organisms
  • Heterotrophs
  • Omnivore
  • Carnivore
  • Scavenger
heterotrops decomposer
Heterotrops- Decomposer

Breakdown and release materials

  • Breakdown complex compounds of dead and decaying organisms into simpler substances
  • Fungi, bacteria
flow of energy in ecosystems cycles of matter
Flow of energy in Ecosystems Cycles of matter
  • Matter is composed of carbon, nitrogen and other elements
  • Moves through the food chain from producers to consumers
food chains
Food Chains

Flow of energy

  • Arrows indicaate direction in which energy is transferred
  • May be as few as one or two – or unlimited
  • Plants decomposers
  • Plantscowmandecomposer (bacteria)
food web
Food web

Shows relationships for organisms that feed on more than one species

ecological pyramids
Ecological Pyramids

Only 10 % of energy is passed to next level

flow of energy
Flow of Energy
  • Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids are all models that show how energy moves in only one direction through the tropichlevles of an ecosystem
  • Some energy lost to heat
  • Sunlight is souce
according to the law of conservation of energy
According to the law of conservation of energy-
  • energy is neither lost or gained. Some is transferred at each tropic level enerters the environment as heat, but the total amount of energy remains the same.
pyramid of biomasss
Pyramid of Biomasss
  • Each level in a pyramid of biomass represents the amount tht the level above needs to consume to meet it’s needs
cycles in nature
Cycles in Nature

Matter is recycled (never lost) and is not replenished like energy from sunlgiht

  • There is a finite amount of matter
  • The atoms that make up the boies of organisms alive today are the same atoms that have been on Earth since the beginning of time.
water cycle
Water Cycle

Evaporation, condensation, transpiration, precipitation

the carbon cycle
The Carbon Cycle

Life on earth is a carbon based. Carbon is molecule of life

nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle

78 % of atm- not available to plants

Ammonia (urine), lightning, manure,

phosphorus is essential
Phosphorus is essential

All organisms need phosphorus

It is Necessary for growth and development

  • Short cycle
  • Plants absorb from soil
  • Eaten, animsl dies , decompose and is returned to soil
  • Long cycle
  • Phosphates wash into water and are locked in rock
  • Millions of years later- rock is exposed