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Unit 7: Africa. 20.1: The Land. Landforms. Deserts— Sahara—largest desert in the world located in North Africa Kalahari—located in Southern Africa Mountain Ranges— Atlas Mountains—longest range in Africa along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

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landforms
Landforms
  • Deserts—
    • Sahara—largest desert in the world located in North Africa
    • Kalahari—located in Southern Africa
  • Mountain Ranges—
    • Atlas Mountains—longest range in Africa along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
    • Ethiopian Highlands—located in Eastern Africa
      • Mt. Kilimanjaro—highest peak in Africa
landforms cont
Landforms cont…
  • The Great Rift Valley
    • Large crack in the Earth’s surface (tectonic movement)
    • Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are common
water systems
Water Systems
  • Rivers—
    • Nile
      • Longest river in the world
      • Provided fertile land for farming during annual floods
      • Over 95% of the population in Egypt live near the river
      • Nile Delta contains 80% of the population
    • Congo—drains Africa’s central basin flowing to the Atlantic Ocean
    • Zambezi—flows west to the Indian Ocean
      • Victoria Falls
    • Niger—located in West Africa
water systems cont
Water Systems cont…
  • Lakes—
    • Lake Victoria—Largest lake in Africa
    • Over 20 major lakes in the Rift Valley
    • Nasser Lake—Upper Nile
      • Controls flooding
      • Prevents silt deposits
natural resources
Natural Resources
  • Gold—half the world’s gold is contained in South Africa
  • Petroleum—Nigeria, Algeria and Libya (OPEC)
  • Uranium—energy source
  • Various deposits of metals and minerals
  • Hydroelectric power
tropical rain forest
Tropical Rain Forest
  • Near Equator
  • Wettest climate in the region (60+ inches of precipitation a year)
  • 150 ft canopy
savanna
Savanna
  • Tropical grasslands with scattered trees
  • Covers half the continent
  • Seasonal rainfall (wet & dry seasons)
  • Home to diverse and abundant wildlife
  • Up to 6 months of no rain
  • Serengeti Plain (Tanzania)—largest savanna in Africa
21 1 population patterns
21.1: Population Patterns
  • Most live in rural areas
  • High birthrates contribute to population growth
  • Nigeria is the most populated country
  • Many Africans suffer from:
    • Disease (AIDS)
    • Famine
    • Poor health care
    • Poor sanitation
ethnic diversity
Ethnic Diversity
  • Over 300 ethnic groups
    • Mursi, Maasai, Zulu, etc.
  • Rapid urbanization
21 2 history and government
21.2: History and Government
  • 1600-1700’s—Slave Trade
    • Most going to the Americas
  • 1800’s colonization
    • Raw materials
history and government
History and Government
  • Mid 1900’s—independence movements
  • Apartheid—segregation of Blacks and Whites
    • Nelson Mandela fought against apartheid and was the first elected Black African president
language
Language
  • Over 800 languages are spoken
  • Most common languages are English and French
religion
Religion
  • 3 main religions:
    • Christian (Sub-Sahara)
    • Muslim (Sahara and West Africa)
    • Traditional
      • Polytheistic
      • Spirit world
education
Education
  • 60% literacy rates
    • Lower in rural areas
  • Poor funding for schools, teachers and materials
  • Little access to technology, such as, computers and the internet
slide19
Arts
  • Ritual masks
  • Drums and dance
  • Story telling
  • Textiles
economy
Economy
  • 2/3 of the people are involved in agriculture
    • Subsistence farming
    • Nomadic herding
  • Logging and Fishing
    • Loggers are cutting down the rain forest at alarming rates to make room for agriculture
    • Fishing makes up a small portion of economic activity
    • Gold, aluminum and oil are mined
      • Foreign investment
    • Many countries are still in the early phases of industrialization