You have to attribute… Mega corporation expects HSHM to become the biggest video game success since Halo, said Ageration.
Few final things about PR • Who employs PR people?
Few final things about PR • Who employs PR people? • #1 PR agencies
Biggest U.S. agencies • WPP: BursonMarsteller, Hill & Knowlton, Cohn & Wolfe • Omnicom: Fleischmann-Hilliard, Ketchum, Porter Novelli • Interpublic Group (IPG): Weber Shandwick, Golin Harris, DraftFCB
Biggest U.S. agencies • WPP: BursonMarsteller, Hill & Knowlton, Cohn & Wolfe • Omnicom: Fleischmann-Hilliard, Ketchum, Porter Novelli • Interpublic Group (IPG): Weber Shandwick, Golin Harris, DraftFCB • Independent agency Edelman has 4,120 employees and $600 million in annual revenues
Who uses agencies? • Almost everyone: from private companies large and small, non-profits, sports organizations, government agencies, politicians, Hollywood, publishers… and even journalists
Few final things about PR • Who employs PR people? • #1 PR agencies • Companies
Companies with in-house PR • Most multi-million dollar companies will have in-house PR people
Companies with in-house PR • Most multi-million dollar companies will have in-house PR people • Big corporations such as Apple, Exxon and Johnson & Johnson each employ hundreds
Bill Gates: founder MSFT • "If I only had two dollars left I would spend one dollar on PR."
Richard Branson: founder Virgin Airlines • "If your staff works enormously hard to create something they are proud of, it's foolish if you don't let the world know about it. Using yourself to get out and talk about it is a lot cheaper and more effective than a lot of advertising. In fact, if you do it correctly, it can beat advertising hands down and save tens of millions of dollars."
Few final things about PR • Who employs PR people? • #1 PR agencies • Companies • Non-profits
Non-profits with in-house PR • United Way, Red Cross, big churches and denominations, cultural organizations (music, theater, dance, museums), advocacy groups (ACLU, unions) and a lot more • Found at local, state and national level
Few final things about PR • Who employs PR people? • #1 PR agencies • Companies • Non-profits • Sports organizations
Sports PR • All NBA, MLB, NFL, MLS, minor league teams, every college athletic program, WTA, ATP, PGA and so on
Few final things about PR • Who employs PR people? • #1 PR agencies • Companies • Non-profits • Sports organizations • Government
Government PR • All federal, state and most local agencies have PR people: too numerous to count
Few final things about PR • Who employs PR people? • #1 PR agencies • Companies • Non-profits • Sports organizations • Government • Education
Education PR • Every college and university has a swarm of PR people • Also found representing school boards and local districts and private primary schools
So why study journalism? • It’s a great skill to have • Journalism is a big part of our daily lives • You never know where it might take you • Venezuela, France, Japan, China, Canada, Brazil, Costa Rica, Belgium, Bermuda, U.K., Puerto Rico • You will be a better student by the end of this year... lead pipe cinch • It should be fun!
Journalism:formal definitions • the profession of gathering, editing, and publishing news reports and related articles for newspapers, magazines, television, radio or on-line
First Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Luke 1:1-4 (ESV) “Inasmuch as many have undertaken to compile a narrative of the things that have been accomplished among us, just as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word have delivered them to us, it seemed good to me also, having followed all things closely for some time past, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, that you may have certainty concerning the things you have been taught.”
History of journalism • Gutenberg printing press in 1440 • 1600: first weekly papers in Europe • 1665: Oxford Gazette (later London Gazette), first true English-language newspaper • 1690: Publick Occurrences published in Boston; fails • 1704: Boston News-Letter published; it makes it! • 1729: Ben Franklin takes over The Pennsylvania Gazette • 1776: Declaration of Independence printed throughout colonies • Bill of Rights codifies freedom of press, first established in Zenger case
History of journalism: 20th century • Early 20th century: muckrakers • 1920: first regular radio broadcast, CBS, NBC soon form networks • 1939: CBS and NBC begin regular television broadcasts • 1941: FDR declares war on Japan, carried live on radio; Americans turn to radio for immediate WWII news • Television sales boom post-war; “big three” of ABC, CBS, NBC start to emphasize television news • 1963: JFK assassinated, TV becomes place to go for immediate news
TTS v IR • Impact Impact • Conflict Conflict • Novelty Novelty • Prominence Prominence • Proximity Proximity • Timeliness Immediacy Emotions
Which brings us to objectivity • Most mainstream journalists contend they strive for objectivity... even at pubs such as Time, Newsweek, NY Times, Washington Post et. al • Objective = provable • “Properly understood, objectivity provides the method most likely to yield the best obtainable version of the truth.”
Taking great notes • Without great notes, you can’t write a great story • It all starts with a notebook • Then your own system of note taking: shorthand, organization, pen, fact organization, etc. • Learn to write while looking at subject; talk about one thing and write about another; give yourself time to catch up
During interview, deux • Rephrase questions if you don’t get what you want or it’s unclear • Ask follow-ups: How do you know that? Can you give me an example? What is the thought behind that? • Be flexible, follow the twists and turns • Note the “color” facts
Types of quotes • Direct quote: Word-for-word what they said. Always starts with a quote mark and ends with quote mark • Usually ends with attribution: “It’s like running 90 miles an hours with your hair on fire,” said Bowers.
If you’re a reporter, somebody’s gotta say it • Unless it’s a well known fact – the earth is round – you usually need an attribution • You have to indicate the source of most fact, all opinions and quotes • Must keep your own opinions out of story: i.e., you can’t say Mrs. B is a dynamo. Tom Pellegrino can say that and you can quote him
Traditional journalism starts with the Inverted Pyramid • Summarize first, explain later • Information is arranged from most important to least important • Best way of delivering “hard” news in all media, from dead-tree newspapers to smart phones • 69 percent of stories in papers use IP, as do most TV, radio and web stories
And that’s where the fun begins! • You have to make hundreds of news judgments when you write a lead • You have to identify and rank the most newsworthy elements in each story • Sum it up, boil it down • This takes practice but will pay off no matter you do after high school • Which brings us to....
Five Ws (and an H) • Who • What • Where • When • Why • How
Writing great ledes • Collect all your facts • Sum it up, boil it down • Prioritize the five Ws (and an H) • Rethink, revise, rewrite • Is it clear? • Is it active? • Is it wordy? • Is it compelling? • Is it news??????
Brites • A featurette: generally odd or amusing nuggets • Comic relief from the hard news of the day • Ledes are fun, designed to draw you in... not inverted pyramid
Beyond the IP (inverted pyramid) • Yes, journalism is a lot more than the IP... but it remains the foundation of journalism • If time, space and detail are available, we can use the techniques of narration and structures other than IP • Can be anything from a car wreck, a routine meeting or politics