IMMUNITY AND BIOTERRORISM M Harvard University Outreach 2004 Sandi Haracz Gil
OBJECTIVE • This project will allow you the opportunity to research an important current, biologically social topic and make some judgments • You can then go into further depth into the topic of immunity
TO BEGIN YOUR PROJECT GO TO: WWW.BIOEDONLINE.ORG SCROLL DOWN” PRESENTATIONS” TO PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES, “Bioterrorism”WITH VIDEO AND AUDIO- OBSERVE THIS BRIEF PROGRAM Going around the room make one statement about an observation you made while viewing this video-How did it affect you? ”
For our study we will compare bacteria with viruses in several ways to allow us to understand how terror microbes could enter our body. • Let us look at the names of some of the different kinds of diseases that are caused by viruses as opposed to bacteria • The following is a list of some of the diseases or conditions in plants, animals and humans caused by bacteria or viruses. (The diseases in italics will be used in these lessons to follow.) • Viruses: Bacteria: • * Croup anthrax • * Encephalitis botulism • * chicken pox cholera • * small pox lyme disease • * Rabies meningitis • * Mumps salmonellosis • * Distemper tuberculosis • * Mononucleosis thyhoid fever • ebola hemorrhagic fever Strep throat • * Polio Staphlococcus infection • * Influenza • * yellow fever • * AIDS • * german measles • * hepatitis B • * hepatitis C • * hoof (foot) & mouth disease • * genital herpes • * strep throat • * spinal meningitis • * chlamydia • * tuberculosis (TB) • * cholera • * pneumonia • * toxic shock syndrome • * syphilis • * mad cow disease • * whooping cough • * gonorrhea • * lyme disease • * scarlet feve • * cat scratch fever • * botulism • * diphtheria • * fire blight • * ring rot Viral
Viruses and bacteria are two different kinds of germs. Both can invade our bodies and make us sick. However, bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, but viral infections are very hard to treat. Bacterialiving cells can make their own food and multiply separate and different from human cells easy to develop a drug that kills only bacteria (antibiotic)Virusnot a cell need to invade a living cell to multiply lives inside human cells -parasitic hard to make a drug that kills viruses and not human cells Let’s Look at Some Basic Facts
Let’s get a closer look at bacteria with this activity • Create a three dimensional model of a bacterium cell and identify the function of the parts by demonstrating how the cell part works-some parts will be more difficult than others but do the best job you can(relate this model to the anthrax bacterium-use other resources as needed) Bacterial cell model
Or, you may just draw the cell and identify the function of the parts • Draw out the parts of a bacterial cell and next to each part label the function. Bacterial cell
Viruses are very small and non-cellular -Note their parts • Cold virus • Make a three-dimensional model of this virus • Again, relate the parts of the virus to its function • Or, you may draw a virus, labeling the parts and giving the functions of the parts
Now, we are going to go into a more detailed study of the anthrax disease which is carried by a bacterium. For this activity you will read an article and answer some questions. This will be followed by a more detailed, animated study of anthrax. Using the Website: NewScientist.com/hottopics/bioterrorism Find the topic about Anthrax (An anthrax epidemic has been a concern of health officials in the U.S. as a form of bioterror) Read the article. Questions to follow on worksheet.
Immunity and Bioterrorism Worksheet (Anthrax article) Name_________________Date_________ Section_____ Questions: What is anthrax? How does the microbe get into the body? What are the dangers of this organism to people? How can the United States guard against this microbe?
Anthrax animation: http://www.biochem3d.com/Anthrax.htm - While viewing this animation click on the diagrams to hear an Audio presentation. You should be able to answer these two questions: What are three ways that the bacterium, Bacillusanthraci, may enter the human body? 2. How does the body’s immune system respond to this microbe? Virus animation:http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/aids/immune.html Download”The Virus Game” You will take the role of a macrophage and try to digest the Virus. Once you have won the game you will be given an explanation of how the immune system works to combat a Virus. Could you give an oral narrative of this explanation?
Challenge: Read the article Superflu being brewed in the lab(web: Bioedonline.org) • 1. Why do scientist want to create a devastating virus in the lab? • 2. What are the dangers of this approach? • 3. What do you think we should do about this problem? • 4. How has this powerpoint study of bacteria and viruses enabled you to better understand the dangers of bioterrorism?
Going further • Use the article Blood and Body Defenses and select one pathway. • Explain that one pathway used by your immune system to destroy a microbe such as the flu virus or anthrax bacterium Website:science.nhmccd.edu/biol/ap2n.htm is a good reference
Additional bacterial worksheet Website:web.ukonline.co.uk/webwise/spinneret/microbes/bacter.htm