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National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia

MAINSTREAMING Disaster r isk r eduction IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND BUDGETING SYSTEM : CASE OF INDONESIA. National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia. Dr. Suprayoga Hadi ( suprayoga@bappenas.go.id )

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National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia

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  1. MAINSTREAMING Disasterrisk reduction IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND BUDGETING SYSTEM:CASE OF INDONESIA National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Dr. Suprayoga Hadi (suprayoga@bappenas.go.id) Director for Special Area and Disadvantaged Region, National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS), Republic of Indonesia National Project Director of Safer Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction in Development (SCDRR), a cooperation between Government of Indonesia and UNDP 2nd Session of Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction Geneva, Switzerland, 16-19June 2009

  2. Indonesia as a Disaster Prone Country • With Indonesia’s more than 18,000 islands along the Pacific “ring of fire” of active volcanoes and tectonic faults, the recent disaster is a reminder of the natural perils facing this expansive archipelago • Consist of approx. 224 million inhabitants, disproportionately distributed, comprises a mix ethnicities, community groups, religious denominations, customs and traditions • Flood and landslides also very common in the forest fringe areas in the rainy season with number of causalities and damaged settlements (N Sumatra, Kalimantan, Central and East Java, and Sulawesi) • Most of the main river banks are crowded with low-income squatter with high population density, increasing uncontrolled sedimentation • 383 out of 483 districts/cities are disaster prone areas, for the reason of high number of population, high density areas with unevenly population distribution, high income disparity, increasing percentage of building coverage at urban and settlement area, decreasing water and sanitation quality • Early warning system is not ready available and ready to lowering the risk and impact in the prone areas of disasters, such as earthquake, landslides, and drought • Implementation of spatial plan for land use management were somewhat inconsistent and contributed to the high risk of natural disaster . • The policy, legal or regulatory framework is not fully in place that makes disaster risk reduction a normal part of the decentralized, local level development process.

  3. Issues on Natural Disaster in Indonesia • 130 Active volcanoes  potency to volcanic hazards • Recent Earthquake in Indonesia • Yogyakarta-Central Java, June 2006 • Bengkulu-West Sumatera, September 2007 • Gorontalo-Central Sulawesi, December 2008 • West Papua, January 2009 • Tsunami • Recent tsunami in Indonesia • Floods: • Natural Factor (topography, high tide, rainfall) • Man-made Factor (change in land use, squatter area in river banks,decrease in river capacities affected by the pile of garbage and lack of maintenance, increase of sedimentation rate, etc)

  4. Disaster Data affected by Global Climate Change in Indonesia (1998 – 2007) Source: DIBI, 2009

  5. Regulatory and Institutional Reform on DRR and Climate Change Law No 24 year 2007 on Disaster Management Law No 26 year 2007 on Spatial Planning Law No 27year 2007 on Small Islands and Coastal Management Government Regulation (GR) No 21/2008 on DM Operations, GR No 22/2008 on Funding & Management of Disaster Assistance, GR No 23/2008 on Participation of International Institutions and Foreign Non-Government Institution in DM GR No 26 / 2008 on National Spatial Planning Presidential Regulation No 8 / 2008 on NDMA (BNPB) Presidential Regulation Nr 46 / 2008 on National Council for Climate Change Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No 46/2008 on BPBD Organization and Works Mechanism Head of BNPB Regulation No 3/ 2008 on BPBD Regulatory Framework Institutional Framework Establishment of BNPB Establishment of BPBD in a number of provincial and district / city levels Establishment on National Platform on DRR Establishment of National Council for Climate Change Establishment of Mitigation Forum (led by Min of Marine & Fisheries)

  6. Mainstreaming DRR and Climate Change into Development Planning System • Long-term Development Planning (RPJP) 2005 – 2025: • RPJP 2005 – 2025 has identified CC as a critical challenge to Indonesia. Under the Development Direction: Terwujudnya Indonesia yang Asridan Lestari (Everlasting Indonesia), the Plan highlights the various disasters caused by extreme climatic events in Indonesia, including the recent floods and droughts that have brought about heavy losses to national economy • Mainstreaming CC and DRR into RPJMN 2005 – 2009 : • Natural Resources Protection and Conservation, with main activities including : • Review of policies on natural resource protection and conservation • Protection of natural resources against uncontrolled exploitation • Protection against forest fires • Management and protection of biodiversity against extinction, on land, coasts and sea. • Partnership building with universities, local communities, NGO and private sector for the protection and conservation of natural resources • Spatial planning and zoning for the protection of natural resources, especially in areas prone to tectonic earthquakes, tsunami, floods, drought and other hazards. • Program to Develop Capacity in Natural Resources and Environmental Management • Program to Improve Quality and Access of Information on Natural Resources and Environment

  7. Mainstreaming DRR and Climate Change into Development Priority in 2007-2009

  8. GoI Current Policies on DM • Changing paradigm in DM: • National and Local Plan for DM • National and Local Action Plan for DRR • Funding Arrangement for DM: • - National Budget • - Local Budget • - Private sectors and/or community • - International Donors and NGOs • LAW on DM No. 24 / 2007 • PP 21/2008 on • DM Arrangement • PP 22/2008 on DM Financing • PP 21/2008 on DM External Supports • Presidential Regulation (Perpres) No 8 / 2008 on the establishment of National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) • Ministry of Home Affairs Decree (Permendagri) No 46/2008 on the establishment of Local Disaster Management Board (BPBD)

  9. Integration of DM Plan & NAP-DRR into Dev’t Plan Long –term Development Plan (RPJP) 2005 - 2025 Initiative Rights from Councils Involve multi stakeholders the preparation of the plan Involve multi stakeholders in DRR activity DM Law 24/2007 National Action Plan for DRR (NAP-DRR) (2006 – 2009) DM Plan 2010-2014 & NAP-DRR 2010-2012 Mid–term Development Plan (RPJM)2010- 2014 • Government Annual Plans (RKPs) • 2007, 2008 & 2009 • Government Annual Plans (RKPs) • 2010, 2011, etc

  10. Policies on DRR Financing PP 22/2008 on DM Financing • Funding Resources : • APBN (Nat’l budget) • APBD (local budget) • Community Emergency Response Pre-Disaster Post Disaster • In situation of non-occurrence of disaster: • Facilitation of DM Planning formulation • DRR Programming • Disaster prevention programming • Integration of development planning with DM planning • Facilitation of implementation and enforcement of spatial planning • Formulation of DR Analysis • Implementation of DM Education and Training • Formulation of technical standards for DM • In situation of potential occurrence of disaster: • Preparedness activity • Development of Early Warning System • Disaster mitigation activities

  11. Comprehensive Planning and Funding Arrangements for DRR in Indonesia Preparedness / Risk Reduction (Pre-disaster) Mapping prone areas (earthquake, land sliding, flood, volcanoes, weather disaster) Developing Early Warning System (EWS) in prone areas (including dissemination EWS to community) Community awareness for disaster preparedness Capacity building to institutions for disaster management (coordination & immediate response) Responsible parties Line Ministries/ Sectoral Budgets

  12. Position of NAP-DRR within the Planning and Budgeting Process Nat’l Sectoral Medium-term Plan Sectoral Annual Work Plan Sectoral Budgeting Plan Detail of National Budget Central Government NAP-DRR Gov’t Annual Work Plan National Long-term Plan National Medium-term Plan Annual Budget Plan National Annual Budget Prov/Local Long-term Plan Prov/LocalMedium-term Plan LG Annual Work Plan Prov/Local Annual Budget Plan Prov/Local Annual Budget Provincial/Local Government LAP-DRR Prov/Local Sectoral Med-term Plan LG sectoral Annual Work Plan Rprov/Local Sectoral Budget Plan Detail of Prov/Local Budget


  14. Disaster Management and DRR related Budget Allocation in Gov’t Annual Work Plan 2007 & 2008

  15. Disaster Management and DRR related Budget Allocation in Annual Work Plan 2009

  16. Disaster Management and DRR Financing in Indonesia 2007-2009 • Based on the DM Law and Government Regulation No 22 / 2008, the DRR financing resources are from: • Government (National & Local) • Community / Private • Donors • The Government allocates the budget based on the RPJM and RKP (Government Annual Works Plan) as indicated on the previous slides. • The specific national budget for climate change was allocated in the RKP 2009 (in Priority no 2 – Focus 5), while in the past, the government activities targeting for CC were embedded into regular development programs with no specific national budget allocated to CC. • The Climate change financial scheme will apply the rules and procedures under UNFCCC and ODA financing mechanism, and aligns with GOI general financing policies. • For external funding, Indonesia prioritizes grant utilization to finance CC programming which is from bilateral or multilateral donors

  17. DRR Financing in Government Budget 2007-2009

  18. Comparison of Program Proposal in the National Action Plan on Disaster Risk Reduction Against Government Allocation 2007 - 2009 IDR. Million Data compilation as per Feb. 2009

  19. Non Government Budget • Multilateral and Bilateral Loans/Grants on DRR in supporting: • 1. Institutional and Regulatory development at national and local levels; • 2. Revitalization of Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Areas • 3. Conservation critical upstream watershed areas • 3. Poverty reduction programs • 4. Community Development Programs (livelihoods, settlement infrastructure program) • 5. Development and strengthening on Early Warning System (including strengthening multi sector and multi stakeholder coordination and cooperation within early warning chain) • 6. Infrastructure development (incl. regulation and building standards) • 7. Strengthening BMG on Climate and Weather Services Capacity • 8. DRR Education and Training Program • 9. Raising Public Awareness

  20. Comparison of Program Proposal in the National Action Plan on Disaster Risk Reduction Against Donor and NGO’s 2007 - 2009 IDR. Million • Note: • Data collection Jan - Feb 2009 • Most of the programs are multi years. The budget allocation is recorded at the first year of the program

  21. Donors Contribution to DM System • Pre-disaster phase: • strengthen local and national capacities, to effectively prevent, mitigate, prepare for, respond to and recover from disasters; • support and promote the effective implementation of legal and regulatory instruments for disaster risk reduction and disaster management and • support dialogue and coordination between agencies and institutions at all levels to prepare for effective disaster risk management. • During disaster • making use of disaster response capacities, and taking into account the responsibilities assigned under the ongoing humanitarian reform process and where national capacities are exceeded • support Government efforts to provide emergency humanitarian assistance to disaster affected populations • conduct needs assessments • share information and assist Government in coordination of the disaster response • Post-disaster phase • making use of pre-existing frameworks for cooperation, and taking into account the Millennium Development Goals and the Hyogo Framework for Action and support national efforts to help communities effectively recover from the impact of disaster and to promote sustainable development

  22. Lessons Learned • Shifting the paradigm mandated in the DM law No 24/2007 enhances the participation form non-government multi stakeholders, mainly international community and NGOs in the DM and DRR activities; • Indonesia experiences in recent disasters (Aceh & Yogya) implies to: • generate government in the acceleration of the finalization and implementation of DM and DRR regulatory and institutional frameworks; • enhance the awareness of people in the importance of DRR; • attract international communities in supporting government in the promoting DRR; • Commitment and support from international communities and donors significantly provide advocacy policy frameworks and generate the implementation of mainstreaming DRR into sustainable development, such as Program SCDRR supported by DFID and UNDP, GFDRR by the World Bank, AusAID, JICA etc.

  23. CHALLENGES and WAY FORWARD • Develop the derivation from the DM Law in line with the mainstreaming DRR into sustainable development; • Integrate and synergize strategies adopted by each sectors into a holistic approach of DRR in the development; • Strengthen capacity of government institutions and apparatus in the DM and DRR aspects; • Improve public awareness through campaign, simulation drill, etc • Introduce DRR Sensitivity Planning Approach as the bottom up development planning and budgeting approach starting at village levels; • Formulate policy recommendation and strategy for the implementation of CBDRM, that currently implemented fragmentary by NGOs at sub-district and village levels; • Shift the international donors and community on the DRR implementation from ‘favorable areas’ (Aceh & Yogya) to other prone disaster areas; • Formulate sustainable tools to link from rehabilitation and reconstruction stage to DRR and mitigation efforts, as well as integrate DRR and Climate Change (NAP-DRR and NAPA).

  24. Thank Youfor further information, please visit:http://bencana.bappenas.go.id and http://www.sc-drr.org

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