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The Kappe Lecture Stevens Institute of Technology September 21, 2013 George Tchobanoglous Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California, Davis. WASTEWATER TREATMENT TRENDS IN THE 21ST CENTURY. Topics. Part-1 Some Global Trends

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wastewater treatment trends in the 21st century

The Kappe Lecture

Stevens Institute of Technology

September 21, 2013

George Tchobanoglous

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

University of California, Davis

WASTEWATER TREATMENT TRENDS IN THE 21ST CENTURY

topics
Topics

Part-1 Some Global Trends

Part-2 Uncontrollable Events and Unintended Consequences

Part-3 Future Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities

part 1 some global trends that will impact wastewater treatment
Part-1 Some Global Trends that will Impact Wastewater Treatment
  • Population Demographics

Impact of urban spread

Urbanization along coastal areas

  • Climate Change (wetter/dryer)

Sea level rise

Changing weather patterns

  • Aging infrastructure
urbanization along coastal areas
Urbanization Along Coastal Areas
  • By 2030, 60-70 percent of world’s population will live near a coastal region
  • Withdrawing water from inland areas, transporting it to urban population centers, treating it, using it once, and discharging it to the coastal waters is unsustainable.
aging infrastructure challenges
Aging Infrastructure Challenges
  • Aging wastewater infrastructure (typical age 75 years) in large cities over 100 years old with excessive exfiltration
  • Flowrateswill continue to decrease resulting in:
    • Increased corrosion
    • Most conventional gravity sewer design equations no longer suitable
    • Increased mass concentration loading factors have impacted wastewater treatment facilities
part 2 impact of uncontrolled events and unintended consequences
Part-2 Impact of Uncontrolled Events and Unintended Consequences
  • Uncontrollable events

Natural disasters (e.g., storm surges)

Impact of climate change on rainfall intensity

Power and chemical costs

  • Unintended consequences

Treatment plant siting (considered previously)

Water conservation

Treatment plant design/energy usage

Excess treatment capacity (e.g., tankage)

unintended consequence of sea level rise on stormwater collection system
Unintended Consequence of Sea LevelRise on StormwaterCollectionSystem

Courtesy City of San Francisco

unintended consequence of sea level rise on stormwater collection system1
Unintended Consequence of Sea Level Rise onStormwater Collection System

Courtesy City of San Francisco

slide15
Impact of Water Conservation and Drought:Solids Deposition, H2S Formation, and Downstream Corrosion due to Reduced Flows
at 0 03 kwh energy efficiency was not an issue
At $0.03/kWh energy efficiency was not an Issue.
  • Older Treat. Plant Design - Little Concern for:
  • The use of resources,
  • The consumption of energy,
  • Long-term sustainability, and
  • The carbon footprint
slide17

Energy

Usage in

BiologicalTreatment

(e.g., activated

Sludge)

part 3 future trends challenges and opportunities
Part-3 Future Trends, Challenges,and Opportunities
  • Paradigm shift in view of wastewater
  • Alternative collection systems
  • Energy recovery from wastewater
  • Enhanced preliminary and pretreatment
  • Urine separation
  • Direct and indirect potable reuse
  • Integrated wastewater management
new view of wastewater a paradigm shift for the 21 st century
New View of Wastewater: A Paradigm Shift for the 21st Century

WASTEWATER is a RENEWABLESOURCE of ENERGY (heat and chemical), RESOURCES, POTABLE WATER

slide22

ENERGY RECOVERY

FROM WASTEWATER

energy content of wastewater
Energy Content of Wastewater

Heat energy

Specific heat of water = 4.1816 J/g •°C at 20°C

Chemical oxygen demand(COD) C7.9H13O3.7NS0.04

C7.9H13NO3.7 + 8.55O2→ 7.9CO2 + NH3+ 5H2O

Chemical energy (Channiwala,1992)

HHV (MJ/kg) = 34.91 C + 117.83 H - 10.34 O - 1.51 N + 10.05 S - 2.11A

required and available energy for wastewater treatment exclusive of heat energy
Required and Available Energy for Wastewater Treatment, Exclusive of Heat Energy
  • Energy required for secondary wastewater treatment
  • 1,200 to 2,400 MJ/1000 m3
  • Energy available in wastewater for treatment (assume COD = 500 g/m3)
  • Q = [500 kg COD/1000 m3) (1000 m3) (13 MJ/ kg COD)
  • =6,000 MJ/1000 m3
  • Energy available in wastewater is 2 to 4 times the amount required for treatment
heat recovery from wastewater
Heat Recovery from Wastewater

SOURCE : City of Vancouver, Sustainability website retrieved from http://vancouver.ca/sustainability/neuTechnology.htm

FALSE CREEK ENERGY CENTER

slide28

ENHANCED PRELIMINARY

TREATMENT

Grit and Grease Removal

slide30

ENHANCED

PRETREATMENT

slide31

Alternative Technologies for

Primary Treatment and Energy Recovery

slide32

ALTERNATIVE

TREATMENT

TECHNOLOGIES

slide35

New Biological Treatment Processes

Ambient Temperature Anammox Process

alternative wastewater treatment without biological treatment
Alternative Wastewater TreatmentWithout Biological Treatment

Energyand product recovery

Solids

processing

slide37

RETURN FLOW TREATMENT,

FLOW AND LOAD EQUALIZATION, AND RESOURCE RECOVERY

slide40

URINE

SEPARATION

nutrients and trace organics in domestic wastewater a case for urine separation
Nutrients and Trace Organics in Domestic Wastewater: A Case for Urine Separation

Source: Jönsson et al.(2000) Recycling Source Separated Human Urine.

slide46

DIRECT AND INDIRECT

POTABLE REUSE

slide47

Recycling Through

Direct and Indirect

Potable Reuse

indirect and direct potable reuse
Indirect and Direct Potable Reuse

OCWD

Windhoek, Namibia

~30%

San Diego, CA (Proposed),

Singapore, Australia

slide52

ElectricPower Consumption

in Typical Urban Water Systems

slide53

Wastewater Management Infrastructure -

Potential Locations for Water Plants

OCWD type plant

review of driving forces for direct and indirect potable reuse
Review of Driving Forces for Direct and Indirect Potable Reuse
  • The value of water will increase significantly in the future (and dramatically in some locations)
  • De facto indirect potable reuse is largely unregulated (e.g., secondary effluent, ag runoff, urban stormwater, highway runoff)
  • Infrastructure requirements limit reuse opportunities
  • Existing and new technologies can and will meet the water quality challenge
  • Population growth and global warming will lead to severe water shortages in many locations. A reliable alternative supply should be developed
  • Must think differently about water
impact of dpr on future wwtp design
Impact of DPR on Future WWTP Design
  • Targeted Source Control Program
  • Modification of raw wastewater characteristics
  • Elimination of Untreated Return Flows
  • Flow Equalization
  • Operational Mode for Biological Treatment
  • Improved Design and Monitoring
  • Ongoing Pilot Testing
slide56

INTEGRATED

WASTEWATER

MANAGEMENT

intercepted in building self contained water recycle system
Intercepted In-Building Self-Contained Water Recycle System

Reclaimed water is used for

toilet flushing, landscape irrigation,

and cooling water

slide60

Offsetting Potable Water Demand for Irrigation

(System has been in Operation for 25 Years, Upland, CA)

Courtesy D. Ripley

review of opportunities and challenges
Review of Opportunities and Challenges
  • Energy and nutrients in wastewater are under utilized
  • New models for retrofitting collection systems
  • New technologies will revolutionize design of WWTPs
  • Direct potable reuse solves multiple problems with existing wastewater systems and future demographics
  • New integrated infrastructure needed for enhanced water reuse
the future of wastewater treatment
The Future of Wastewater Treatment

Rather than regulations pushing wastewater management as in the past, THE VALUE OF POTABLE WATER, ENERGY, AND NUTRIENTSwill propel developments in the 21st century.

slide63
THANK YOU

FOR LISTENING