Understanding Participles in Latin. MarshLatin.wordpress.com. In order to understand participles, remember the following:. Participles are verbal adjectives. They have some features of verbs and some of adjectives. But they are most basically a type of adjective.
Here are some participles with the nouns and pronouns that they modify:
* The shining sun.
* The waning moon.
* The crying child.
* The running water.
* Those qualifying for a rebate.
* The book loved by millions.
Notice that a verb stands behind each participle: to shine, to wane, to cry, to run, to qualify, to love.
* The poor need help.
* The rich have an opportunity.
* How can we achieve the greater good?
Attending to what these phrases really mean shows their adjectival nature: the poor [people], the rich [people], the good [reality]. A noun (people or reality) is implied but not stated.
Participles can be used the same way. The following participles are used substantively; that is to say that they stand for persons, places, or things just as nouns do:
What the participles really mean is something like the following [items]
Participles can have objects:
To find the object of a participle, ask Who? or What? after it:
TimeôDanaôs et donaferentês. = I fear the Greeks even [when they are] bearing gifts.
Notice that the participial phrases, which happen to be marked off here by a comma from the rest of the sentence, modify some substantive:
* Which receiver? The catching receiver, the receiver catching the ball.
* Which lady? The reading lady, the lady reading the poem.
* What students? The studying students, the students studying participles.
Participial phrases do not include the words that they modify (e.g., receiver, lady, students), only the words that closely depend upon the participle itself.
ipse equocircumiensunumquemquenominansappellat, hortatur...
He himself circling on his horse, naming each one, calls them, encourages them...
TENSE indicates a reference to past, present, or future.
VOICE indicates an agency's direct action (active voice) or an agency's receiving of an action ("suffering", passive voice).
N.B.: Not all languages use all the possible combinations of tenses and voices.
amâns- loving; the loving one (= lover)
sequêns - following
sapiêns - wisely knowing, the knowing one, the sage
oriêns - rising
amâta - loved; having been loved, the beloved
parâtus - prepared
captî - [those] having been captured; taken
armâtî - armed
secûtus- having followed
locûta - having spoken
moritûrî- about to die, going to die
futûra - about to be
dêlenda - about to be destroyed, to be destroyed
agenda - [things] to be done
corrigenda - [things] to be corrected
memoranda - [things] to be remembered