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MANET Auto-Configuration. KRnet2003. Jaehoon Jeong, ETRI paul@etri.re.kr http://www.adhoc.6ants.net/~paul. Contents. Introduction Unicast Address Autoconfiguration IPv6 Multicast Address Allocation Multicast DNS Service Discovery Protocol Stack supporting MANET Autoconfiguration

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manet auto configuration

MANET Auto-Configuration

KRnet2003

Jaehoon Jeong, ETRIpaul@etri.re.krhttp://www.adhoc.6ants.net/~paul

contents
Contents
  • Introduction
  • Unicast Address Autoconfiguration
  • IPv6 Multicast Address Allocation
  • Multicast DNS
  • Service Discovery
  • Protocol Stack supporting MANET Autoconfiguration
  • Conclusion
  • References
introduction
Introduction
  • Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET)
    • MANET has dynamically changing network topology.
      • MANET partition and mergence may happen.
        • In MANET, there are many points to consider unlike the Internet.
    • There is no network administrator.
      • The current Internet services, such as address autoconfigation and DNS, are difficult to adopt.
  • So, Auto-configuration is necessary in MANET!!
manet auto configuration1
MANET Auto-configuration
  • Unicast Address Autoconfiguration
  • Multicast Address Allocation
  • Multicast DNS
  • Service Discovery

Unicast Address Autoconfiguration

MANETAutoconfiguration

Service Discovery

Multicast DNS

Multicast Address Allocation

introduction1
Introduction
  • Configuration of Unicast Address in Network Interface
    • Precedent step for IP networking
    • Methods of IP address configuration in network interface
      • Manual configuration
      • Automatic configuration
  • Consideration of IP address configuration
    • A unique address should be assigned.
    • Automatic configuration is needed for user’s convenience.
  • Addressing in MANET
    • Each mobile node is necessary to autoconfigure its IP address through DAD.
      • A arbitrary address is selected.
      • The uniqueness of the address is verified though Duplicate Address Detection (DAD).
strong dad
Strong DAD
  • Definition
    • Ai(t) : Address assigned to node i at time t.
    • For each address a != undefined, Sa(t) = {j | Aj(t) = a}.
  • Condition of Strong DAD
    • Within a finite bounded time interval after t, at least one node in Sa(t) will detect that |Sa(t)| > 1.
example of strong dad

1st Try of Host A

  • MAC Address - a9:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff
  • IPv6 Address - fec0:0:0:ffff:abbb:ccff:fedd:eeff

MANET Prefix

EUI-64

  • 2nd Try of Host A
  • 64-bit Random Number – 1111:2222:3333:4444
  • IPv6 Address - fec0:0:0:ffff:1111:2222:3333:4444

Random Number

Example of Strong DAD
  • MAC & IPv6 Address of Host C
  • MAC Address – a9:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff
  • IPv6 Address - fec0:0:0:ffff:abbb:ccff:fedd:eeff

Host C

Host B

Host A

NA message

NS message

Router

Wireless Link

Where NS : Neighbor Solicitation, NA : Neighbor Advertisement

procedure of strong dad
Procedure of Strong DAD

Generation of 32-bit Random Numberand 64-bit Random Number

Generation of Temporary address withMANET_INIT_PREFIX and 32-bit Number

  • MANET_INIT_PREFIX
    • fec0:0:0:ffff::/96
  • MANET_PREFIX
    • fec0:0:0:ffff::/64

Generation of Tentative address with MANET_PREFIX and 64-bit Number

Transmission of Extended NS message

This iteration is performed by predefined retry-number.

Was any extended NA message received from any other node?

YES

NO

Generation of 64-bitRandom Number

Reconfiguration of Unicast address in NIC

problem of strong dad 1 2
Problem of Strong DAD - 1/2

IP address = a

A

F

B

C

G

H

E

K

D

IP address = a

problem of strong dad 2 2
Problem of Strong DAD – 2/2

IP address = a

A

F

B

C

G

H

E

K

D

IP address = a

conclusion for strong dad
Conclusion for Strong DAD
  • Simple Observation
    • If partitions can occur for unbounded intervals of time, then strong DAD is impossible.
  • Limitation of Charles E. Perkins’s DAD
    • When partitions merge, addresses of all nodes must be checked for duplicates.
      • This DAD does not indicate how merging of partitions should be detected.
      • This does not suggest how the congestion caused by DAD messages may be reduced.
weak dad
Weak DAD
  • Requirements
    • Correct Delivery
      • Packets meant for one node must not be routed to another node, even if the two nodes have chosen the same address.
    • Relaxed DAD
      • It does not require detection of all duplicate addresses.
        • The duplication of addresses can not be detected in partitioned networks.
definition
Definition
  • Assumption
    • A packet sent by node X at time t to destination address a be delivered to node Y that has chosen address a.
  • Condition
    • After time t, packets from node X with destination address a are not delivered to any node other than node Y.
design goals
Design Goals
  • Address size cannot be made arbitrarily large.
    • MAC address cannot be embedded in the IP address.
  • IP header format should not be modified.
    • It is wanted to add new options to the IP header.
  • Contents of routing-related control packets may be modified to include information pertinent to DAD.
    • E.g., Link state updates, Route request / reply.
  • No assumptions should be made about protocol layers above the network layer.
main idea
Main Idea
  • Key is used for the purpose of detecting duplicate IP addresses.
    • The key is not embedded in the IP address itself.
  • Generation of Key
    • MAC Address
      • When MAC address of an interface is guaranteed to be unique.
    • Random Number
      • A sufficiently large number of bits of making the probability of key conflict acceptably small
    • Number derived from some other information
      • E.g., Manufacture’s name and device serial number
link state routing with strong dad
Link State Routing with Strong DAD

Routing table at node D

A

B

C

E

Link state packet transmitted by D

D

link state routing with weak dad
Link State Routing with Weak DAD

Routing table at node D

A

B

C

E

Link state packet transmitted by D

D

resolution of address c onflict by weak dad
Resolution of Address Conflict by Weak DAD

(IP address, Key) = (a, K_A)

A

F

B

C

G

H

E

DuplicationAdvertisement

K

D

(IP address, Key) = (a, K_K)

E detects the duplication of address a with key information

(IP address, Key) = (b, K_K)

hybid dad
Hybid DAD
  • Hybid DAD
    • Combination of Strong DAD and (Enhanced) Weak DAD
      • Strong DAD detects duplicate address within a single connected partition.
      • Weak DAD processes the address conflict by MANET’s partition and mergence.
    • Hybrid DAD Scheme
      • It may detect some duplicate addresses sooner than using weak DAD alone.
      • The use of weak DAD makes it robust to partitions and large message delays in Strong DAD.
phases of hybid dad
Phases of Hybid DAD
  • 1st Phase
    • By Strong DAD
      • Time-based DAD
    • It is performed in the stage for IPv6 address to be configured in network interface.
  • 2nd Phase
    • By Weak DAD
    • It is performed during the routing process.
      • Router discovery in reactive Ad Hoc routing protocols, such as DSR and AODV.
      • Routing information exchange in proactive Ad Hoc routing protocols, such as OLSR and TBRPF.
conclusion for unicast address autoconfiguration
Conclusion for Unicast Address Autoconfiguration
  • Requirements of Ad Hoc DAD
    • Correct Delivery
      • Packets meant for one node must not be routed to another node, even if the two nodes have chosen the same address.
    • Relaxed DAD
      • It does not require detection of all duplicate addresses.
        • The duplication of addresses can not be detected in partitioned networks.
    • Guarantee of Upper-layer session
      • Under the address change by DAD, the upper-layer session, such as TCP session, should be guaranteed to continue.
ipv6 multicast address allocation1
IPv6 Multicast Address Allocation
  • Role
    • It allocates a unique IPv6 multicast address to a session without address allocation server.
  • Address Format
    • IPv6 multicast (a) is generated on the basis of Interface IDof IPv6 unicast address (b).
procedure of multicast address allocation

Request ofMulticast Address Allocation

Generation of Unused Group ID

Generation of a Multicast Address

Delivery of the Multicast Address

Procedure of Multicast Address Allocation
service of multicast application allocation of a unique multicast address for a new session

B

C

D

A

E

A

B

C

D

E

1

1

1

1

1

2

3

4

6

5

7

Service of Multicast Application: Allocation of a unique Multicast Address for a new Session
introduction2
Introduction
  • Name Service in MANET
    • MANET has dynamic network topology
      • Current DNS can not be adopted in MANET!
        • Because it needs a fixed and well-known name server
    • Idea of Name Service in MANET
      • All the mobile nodes take part in name service
        • Every mobile node administers its own name information
        • It responds to the other node’s DNS query related to its domain name and IP address
related work link local multicast name resolution llmnr

LLMNR Sender

LLMNR Responder

LLMNR query message (What is IPv6 address of “host.private.local”?) - It is sent in link-local multicast

LLMNR response message (IPv6 address of “host.private.local”) - It is sent in link-local unicast

Verification of LLMNR response- Does the value of the response conform to the addressing requirements? - Is hop-limit of IPv6 header 1?

If the result is valid, then the Sender caches and passes the response to the application that initiated DNS query.

else the Sender ignores the response and continues to wait for other responses.

Related Work: Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR)
  • DNS service based on IP multicast in link-local scoped network
  • Each node performs the role of DNS name server for its own domain name.
ad hoc name service system for ipv6 manet ans
Ad Hoc Name Service Systemfor IPv6 MANET (ANS)
  • ANS provides Name Service in MANET
  • Architecture of ANS System
    • ANS Responder
      • It performs the role of DNS Name Server
    • ANS Resolver
      • It performs the role of DNS Resolver
ans system 2 2

Application

ANS Resolver

ANS Responder

Main-Thread

ANS Cache

Main-Thread

ANSZone DB

Resolv-Thread

Timer-Thread

DUR-Thread

Process

Thread

Memeory Read / Write

Process

Memeory Read / Write

Cache

Internal Connection

Thread

Internal Connection

Database

ANS System (2/2)

UNIX Datagram Socket

name service in ans
Name Service in ANS
  • Name Generation
    • generates a unique domain name based on the network device identifier
  • Zone File Generation
    • generates ANS zone file with the unique domain name and corresponding IPv6 address
  • Name Resolution
    • performs the name-to-address translation
conclusion for multicast dns
Conclusion for Multicast DNS
  • ANS is a new name service scheme in MANET.
  • Name service of ANS
    • Automatic name generation
    • Automatic zone file generation
    • Name-to-address translation
  • Future work
    • ANS will be enhanced to provide secure name service.
      • Authentication of DNS response message through Pre-shared group key and IPsec ESP’s null-transform
service discovery1
Service Discovery
  • Definition
    • Discovery of the location (IP address, Transport-layer protocol, Port number) of server that provides some service.
  • Methods
    • Multicast DNS based Service Discovery
        • Service discovery through Multicast DNS and DNS SRV resource record, which indicates the location of server or the multicast address of the service
    • SLP based Service Discovery
      • Service discovery through IETF Service Location Protocol (SLP)
        • RFC 2165, RFC 2608, RFC 3111
considerations for service discovery
Considerations for Service Discovery
  • Limitations of Existing Schemes
    • Most of current schemes are concerned with service location for the Internet.
      • Such protocols have not taken into account the mobility, packet loss issues and latency.
  • Considerations
    • Some devices are small and have limited computation, memory, and storage capability.
      • They can only act as clients, not servers.
    • Power constraints
      • Service discovery should not incur excessive messaging over wireless interface.
service discovery based on multicast dns

$TTL 20

$ORIGIN ADHOC.

PAUL-1 IN AAAA FEC0:0:0:FFFF:3656:78FF:FE9A:BCDE

;; DNS SRV Resource Records; Unicast Service : SERVICE-1

_SERVICE-1._TCP IN SRV 0 1 3000 PAUL-1.ADHOC.

_SERVICE-1._UDP IN SRV 0 1 3000 PAUL-1.ADHOC.; Multicast Service : SERVICE-2

_SERVICE-2._UDP IN SRV 0 1 4000 @.1.5.

DNS SRV Resource Record for Multicast Service

Multicast Service Name

8

4

4

112

Parsing Function

MD5 Hash Function

FF

Group ID

Flags label & Scope label

128-bit Digest

FlagsP=0, T=1

Scope5

16-bit IPv6 Site-localMulticast Address Prefix

+

Group ID=Low-order 112 bits of Digest

IPv6 Site-local Multicast Address

Service Discovery based on Multicast DNS

ANS Responder’s Zone File

IPv6 Multicast Address corresponding to Service Name

Generation of IPv6 Multicast Address

scenario of service discovery
Scenario of Service Discovery

MN-A

MN-C

MN-B

Request ofServer Information

DNS Query Messagefor Service Information

DNS Query Messageis sent in Multicast

Receipt of DNS Query Message

DNS Query Messagefor Service Information

Receipt and Processof DNS Query Messagerelated toDNS SRV resource record

DNS Response Messagewith Service Information

Gain ofService Information

MN-C tries to connect to the server on MN-AorMN-C joins the multicast group related to MN-A

The server on MN-A accepts the request of the connection from MN-CorThe multicast group comprises MN-A and MN-C

conclusion
Conclusion
  • MANET Autoconfiguration
    • Unicast Address Autoconfiguration
    • IPv6 Multicast Address Allocation
    • Multicast DNS
    • Service Discovery
  • Autoconfiguration Technologies in MANET
    • They can provide Ad Hoc users with auto-networking.
    • They should be default functions for the deployment of MANET.
    • Also, security in MANET is important issue and is considered together in auto-networking in MANET.
references
References

[1] Jaehoon Jeong, Hyunwook Cha, Jungsoo Park and Hyoungjun Kim, “Ad Hoc IP Address Autoconfiguration”, draft-jeong-adhoc-ip-addr-autoconf-00.txt, May 2003.

[2] Nitin H. Vaidya, “Weak Duplicate Address Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, MobiHoc2002, June 2002.

[3] Charles E. Perkins et al., “IP Address Autoconfiguration for Ad Hoc Networks”, draft-ietf-manet-autoconf-01.txt, November 2001.

[4] Jaehoon Jeong and Jungsoo Park, “Autoconfiguration Technologies for IPv6 Multicast Service in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks”, 10th IEEE International Conference on Networks, August 2002.

[5] Jung-Soo Park and Myung-Ki Shin, “Link Scoped IPv6 Multicast Addresses”, draft-ietf-ipv6-link-scoped-mcast-02.txt, July 2002.

[6] Jaehoon Jeong, Jungsoo Park, Hyoungjun Kim and Kishik Park, “Name Service in IPv6 Mobile Ad-hoc Network”, ICOIN2003, February 2003.

[7] Gulbrandsen, P. Vixie and L. Esibov, “A DNS RR for specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)”, RFC2782, February 2000.

[8] Jaehoon Jeong, Jungsoo Park, and Hyoungjun Kim, “Service Discovery based on Multicast DNS in IPv6 Mobile Ad-hoc Networks”, VTC2003 Spring, April 2003.