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Turkey after the Genocide and the Trials that Never Occurred. Red Cross. B ryce Toynbee Report. Baron Von Wangenheim the German Ambassador. Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations created. Henry Morgenthau the US Ambassador. WWI Ends November 1918. The Evidence and Witnesses.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Red Cross

Bryce Toynbee Report

Baron Von Wangenheim the German Ambassador

Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations created

Henry Morgenthau the US Ambassador

WWI Ends November 1918

The Evidence and Witnesses

NY Times Articles

The Genocide 1915

WWI 1915-1918

Germany, Austria and the Ottoman Empire

vs.

Russia, Britain, French and the US

Sultan out 1907

Young Turks in 1908

possible bystanders
Possible Bystanders
  • New York Times
  • Henry Morgenthau US Ambassador in Ottoman Empire.

3. British and the Bryce Toynbee Report. Viscount James Bryce British Parliament and Arnold Toynbee a historian collect reports.

4. Baron Von Wangenheim the German Ambassador

5. Red Cross

henry morgenthau us ambassador in ottoman empire
Henry Morgenthau US Ambassador in Ottoman Empire.

To the right you see excerpts from my cables sent to Washington during WWI.

Why the US did not enter?

US trying to stay out of WWI

Ambassadors are guests and should have respect for their host nation.

What a sovereign state does in its own borders is their business.

bryce toynbee report
Bryce Toynbee Report

Lines

11-15

23-26

40-43

baron von wangenheim the german ambassador
Baron Von Wangenheim the German Ambassador

"The measures of repression by the Imperial Government [Young Turks] against the Armenian population of the eastern Anatolian provinces having been dictated by military considerations and constituting a legitimate means of defense, the German Government is far from opposing their execution inasmuch as these measures have objective of consolidating the internal security of Turkey and avoiding attempts at insurrections."

red cross
Red Cross

By 1896, the Red Cross worked in the Ottoman Empire to provide aid for Armenians lead by Clara Barton. However,

Turkish government had informed the State Department at Washington that the Red Cross would not be permitted to send surgeons and nurses to the aid of the Armenian people.

Organization donated $ 1.800.000 for relief works in the Near East. Later this amount rose up to $ 6.000.000.

American Red Cross personnel kidnapped Armenian children were restored to their parents and women in Muslim harems were freed.

Problem: No Red Cross Army

young turks

How should the Young Turks be punished after WWI?

Young Turks

Djemal Pasha: Minister of Navy

Enver Pasha: Minister of War responsible for military operations

Talaat Pasha: Minister of Interior responsible for interior issues like deportation

what about the ottoman empire
What about the ottoman Empire?
  • Treaty of Sevres establishes a new Armenian state
  • Enter Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) who led the Turkish Independence War
turkish nationalist vs the occupying allies
Turkish Nationalist vs. The Occupying Allies
  • Turks fight against Allies and set up a new government in Ankara (capital of Turkey)
  • In control of the new government Turkey invades the new Armenian state
  • Armenian has to reject Treaty of Sevres and give up land to Turkey. Meanwhile…
allies demand the new government set up trials for the young turks
Allies demand the new government set up trials for the Young Turks

The Trials

  • Run by Turkey
  • Young Turks flee
  • Talat in Germany, Enver dies in war and Djemal was assassinated
current articles
Current Articles

4 in a group

Main point of each

slide14
Quiz
  • Crimes against humanity, war crimes, massacres, genocide and ethnic cleansing
  • Bystanders and global community during
  • What was done to address the issue of mass killings after WWI?
  • Compare the end of the Holocaust to the end of the Armenian Genocide using one example that focuses on holding perpetrators accountable for their actions.