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Year 11 Psychology – UNIT 1 Area of Study 1 Revision!. Psychology: The scientific study of human behaviour and mental processes. Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology.

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chapter 1 introduction to psychology
Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology

• Scope of psychology including specialist career fields and fields of application and their contribution to understanding human behaviour

• Classic and contemporary theories that have contributed to the development of psychology from philosophical beginnings to an empirical science, including the relationship between psychology and psychiatry

• Differences between contemporary psychological research methods and non-scientific approaches to investigating and explaining human behaviour

• Major perspectives (biological, behavioural, cognitive and socio-cultural) that govern how psychologists approach their research into human behaviour

chapter 2 research methods
Chapter 2: Research Methods

• Research methods and ethics associated with the study of psychology.

Experimental research: construction of hypotheses; identification of independent, dependent and extraneous variables

Ethical principles and professional conduct: the role of the experimenter; protection and security of participants’ rights; confidentiality; voluntary participation; withdrawal rights; informed consent procedures; use of deception in research; debriefing

chapter 3 visual perception
Chapter 3: Visual Perception

• Application of psychological perspectives to explain visual perception:

- Characteristics of the visual perceptual system and the visual processes involved in detecting and interpreting visual stimuli.

- The effect of psychological factors on perceptual set

- Distortions of visual perceptions by illusions

chapter 1 introduction to psychology1
Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Clinical Neuro-Psychology
  • Community Psychology
  • Counselling Psychology
  • Educational and Developmental Psychology
  • Forensic Psychology
  • Health Psychology
  • Organisational Psychology
  • Sport Psychology
  • Biological Psychology
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Personality Psychology
  • Social Psychology
philosophical roots of psychology
Philosophical Roots of Psychology
  • 1St Philosophers: Plato, Aristotle and Socrates.
  • Greek philosophers proposed the mind-body problem (E.g. Do they have a relationship with one another? How do they interact? Is the mind apart of the body or body apart of the mind? Etc)
  • Rene Descartes introduced Dualism where he concluded the mind and body both can control and interact with one another. Before this, philosophers thought they could not control one another.
  • Psychologists today focus more on the mind-brain problem.
  • As we know the brain controls the body, therefore: does our brain interact with our mind?
  • Neuropsychologists are still studying these answers
classical perspectives and theories in psychology

Structuralism-Wundt: Focused on the ‘structure’ of consciousness (1st Psych Lab – 1879)

Functionalism- James: Focused on the ‘functions’ of mental processes in different environments.

Psychoanalysis- Freud: Focus on the unconscious thoughts, feelings and inner needs.

Behaviourism – Watson: Focus on observable behaviours. (i.e. Changing environment can alter behaviour)

Humanism – Rogers: Focus on the uniqueness and goodness of each individual

contemporary perspectives and theories in psychology
  • Biological Perspective: Focus on physiological factors
  • Behavioural Perspective: Focus on observable behaviour in different environments
  • Cognitive Perspective: Focus on how we acquire and process information (i.e Memory)
  • Socio-Cultural Perspective: Focus how culture and social factors influence behaviour.
psychology versus psychiatry
Psychology versus Psychiatry
  • Is not able to prescribe medication
  • 6 years university study
  • Can work in private practices, schools, research labs, government bodies, hospitals, businesses etc

-Can prescribe medication

  • Up to 13 years of study and training
  • Usually work in a hospital setting
psychology as a science
Psychology as a Science
  • Collects empirical evidence
  • Conducts experimental research follows steps of scientific research.
  • Is NOT a pseudoscience such as telepathy or astrology.
chapter 2 research methods1
Chapter 2: Research Methods
  • Hypothesis:

It is hypothesised that all Year 11’s will do wonderfully on their psychology SAC’s tomorrow.

7 steps of psychological research
7 Steps of Psychological Research
  • Identification of the research problem
  • Construction of hypothesis
  • Designing the method
  • Collecting the data
  • Analysing the data
  • Interpreting the data
  • Reporting the research findings
visual perception process
Visual Perception Process
















sensation versus perception
Sensation versus Perception
  • Visual sensation is the same for everyone
  • It is our physiological make up of the eye and the way it functions
  • Visual perception differs as everyone perceives and interprets things differently
  • When studying Visual Perception it is difficult to say where one starts and the other begins so we see it as an interrelated process.

VISUAL PERCEPTION PRINCIPLES:Rules that we apply to visual information to assist our organisation and interpretation of the information in a consistent and meaningful way.

  • Gestalt Principles: The way in which we organise features of a visual scene by grouping them to perceive a whole, complete form.
  • Figure-Ground organisation
  • Closure

Depth Principles: The ability to accurately estimate the distance of objects and therefore perceive the world in three dimensions.

-Binocular depth cues (Requiring the use of both eyes)-Convergence-Retinal Disparity.-Monocular depth cues (Requiring the use of one eye only)-Accommodation-Pictorial cues: Linear perspective, interposition, texture gradient, relative size, height in the visual field