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Chapter 5: The Phrase. Part 1: Prepositional Phrases- The Adjective & Adverb Phrase. What is a phrase?. A group of words that is missing a verb, a subject, or both Examples: i n the kitchen (no subject or verb) c ould have been hiding (no subject) to go with them (no subject).

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Chapter 5: The Phrase


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chapter 5 the phrase

Chapter 5: The Phrase

Part 1: Prepositional Phrases-

The Adjective & Adverb Phrase

what is a phrase
What is a phrase?
  • A group of words that is missing a verb, a subject, or both
  • Examples:
    • in the kitchen (no subject or verb)
    • could have been hiding (no subject)
    • to go with them (no subject)
practice are these phrases or not
Practice…Are these phrases or not
  • when you know
    • NP
  • in the garden
    • P (missing subject and verb)
  • is sleeping
    • P (missing subject)
  • how she remembered
    • NP
  • smiling brightly
    • P (missing subject)
  • to the supermarket
    • P (missing subject and verb)
kinds of phrases
Kinds of Phrases
  • 1) Prepositional Phrase:
    • Begins with a preposition (remember your song…because now you really need it!!!)
    • Ends with a noun or pronoun
example prepositional phrases
Example Prepositional Phrases
  • during the day
    • Preposition: during
    • Noun/pronoun: day
  • with us
    • Preposition: with
    • Noun/pronoun: us
kinds of phrases cont d
Kinds of Phrases cont’d
  • 1A) The Adjective Phrase
    • A prepositional phrase that describes a noun or pronoun
    • So, it begins with a preposition and ends with a noun, but it goes back to or is giving extra information about a noun or pronoun
      • Charles Dickens wrote many tales{about poverty}.
        • about poverty = the adjective phrase (begins with about, ends with poverty)
        • tales = the noun it is giving extra information about
adjective phrase cont d
Adjective Phrase cont’d
  • Answers the questions:
    • What kind?
    • How many?
    • Which one?
    • How much?

**TIP** Adjective phrases usually follow the word or words they describe

adjective phrase cont d1
Adjective Phrase cont’d
  • You try…
    • Easy-----The store with the neon sign is open.
    • Harder----Here’s a gift for you from Mr. B.
    • Hardest-----A majority of the animals in the world sleep during the day.
adjective phrase answers
Adjective Phrase Answers:
  • Easy-----The store {with the neon sign} is open.
    • with the neon sign = adjective phrase
    • store = noun it is describing (answers: which one?)
  • Harder----Here’s a gift {for you} {from Mr. B}.
    • for you = adjective phrase
    • from Mr. B = adjective phrase
    • gift = noun that BOTH phrases are describing (answers: which one?)
  • Hardest-----A majority {of the animals} {in the world} sleep during the day.
    • of the animals = adjective phrase
    • majority = noun it is describing (answers: how many?)
    • in the world = adjective phrase
    • animals = noun it is describing (part of the 1st adjective phrase) (answers: what kind?)
kinds of phrases cont d1
Kinds of Phrases cont’d
  • 1B) The Adverb Phrase
    • A prepositional phrase that describes a verb, adjective, or adverb
    • So, it begins with a preposition and ends with a noun, but it goes back to or is giving extra information about a verb, adjective, or adverb
      • The Ford Motor Company was founded {by Henry Ford} {in 1903}.
        • by Henry Ford = adverb phrase
        • in 1903 = adverb phrase
        • was founded = verb they are giving extra info about
adverb phrase cont d
Adverb Phrase cont’d
  • Answers the questions:
    • When?
    • Where?
    • How?
    • Why?
    • How often?
    • How long?
    • To what extent?
  • **TIP** like adverbs, adverb phrases can move around in the sentence. Adjective phrases usually only follow the word or words they describe.
adverb phrase cont d1
Adverb Phrase cont’d
  • You try…
    • Easy----We got our new puppy at the animal shelter.
    • Harder----She drove for hours through the storm.
    • Hardest----The boat landed on the island near the coast.
adverb phrase answers
Adverb Phrase Answers
  • Easy----We got our new puppy {at the animal shelter}.
    • at the animal shelter = adverb phrase
    • got = verb it is describing (answers: where?)
  • Harder----She drove {for hours} {through the storm}.
    • for hours = adverb phrase
    • through the storm = adverb phrase
    • drove = verb that BOTH phrases are describing (answers: how long? and where?)
  • Hardest----The boat landed {on the island} {near the coast}.
    • on the island = adverb phrase
    • landed = verb it is describing (answers: where?)
    • near the coast = adjective phrase
    • island = noun it is describing (part of the adverb phrase) (answers: which one?)
chapter 5 the phrase1

Chapter 5: The Phrase

Part II: Verbal Phrases-

The Participle & Infinitive Phrases

what is a participle
What is a Participle?
  • A verb form that can be used as an adjective (describes a noun or pronoun)
  • 1) Present Participle = ends in “ing”
  • 2) Past Participle = ends in “d” or “ed”
    • Some past participles are irregular and do not have this ending
      • For example: frozen
      • I went ice skating on the frozen pond.
        • Frozen = past participle
        • Pond = noun it is describing
practice pg 99 100
Practice: pg 99-100
  • Find the participles and nouns/pronouns they describe:
    • Annoyed, I went inside to watch TV.
      • Annoyed = past participle
      • I = pronoun it is describing
    • I woke my sleeping father to ask about mosquitoes.
      • Sleeping = present participle
      • Father = noun it is describing
    • Sucking blood for food, mosquitoes survive in many different cultures.
      • Sucking = present participle
      • Mosquitoes = noun it is describing
    • Bites make the skin swell, and the swollen skin itches.
      • Swollen = past participle
      • Skin = noun it is describing
participle phrase
Participle Phrase
  • Participle phrases are used as adjectives (describes a noun/pronoun)
  • Begins with a participle and contains all describing words
    • Examples:
      • Stretching slowly
      • Predicted by the meteorologist
      • Reading the assignment
participle phrases
Participle Phrases
  • Tips:
    • Look for words that end in “ing” or are past tense
    • Ask: Who or What is that word talking about?
    • Check to make sure the who or what is a noun
    • **Many times, these phrases have commas after them!
you try
You Try…
  • Cheering for the team, we celebrated the victory.
    • Cheering for the team (uses present participle)
  • Shown here, his design for the newest fighter jet was the first one in history.
    • Shown here (uses past participle)
  • Have you ever heard of International Left-Hander’s Day, celebrated on August 13?
    • Celebrated on August 13 (uses past participle)
what is an infinitive
What is an infinitive?
  • A verb form that can be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
  • Most infinitives begin with the preposition “to”
  • **They are ALWAYS followed by a VERB**
  • Examples:
    • To remain
    • To meet
    • To dream
you try1
You Try…
  • My first stop would be to visit the Statue of Liberty.
    • To visit = infinitive
  • France gave the statue to the U.S. in 1884.
    • None
  • It was a gift to express the friendship between the two nations.
    • To express = infinitive
infinitive phrases
Infinitive Phrases
  • An infinitive phrase begins with the infinitive (to + a verb) and contains all describing words & prepositional phrases
  • Examples:
    • To be a good gymnast
    • To fly over both the North and South Poles
    • To go to the gym now
you try2
You Try…
  • A bird sings to claim its territory.
    • To claim its territory
  • Human beings learned to build aircraft by carefully studying the way birds fly.
    • To build aircraft
  • To recognize the songs of different birds takes many hours of practice.
    • To recognize the songs of different birds
  • Birds use their feathers to push their bodies through the air.
    • To push their bodies through the air
part iii phrases

Part III: Phrases

Appositive Phrases

what is an appositive
What is an appositive?
  • It is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to describe or give more information about it.
  • Most often, they are surrounded by commas.
  • Example:
    • My teacher, Mr. Craig, enjoys books by Jane Austen.
      • Mr. Craig = appositive
      • Teacher = noun it is describing
appositive phrase
Appositive Phrase
  • A phrase that is giving more information about a noun or pronoun.
  • Examples:
    • Frankie, a goodhearted and intelligent girl, is a pleasure to teach.
      • Set off by commas & can be taken out
    • Trevor’s friend Mike sometimes gives Trevor poor advice.
      • Not set off by commas because Trevor has more than one friend, so Mike’s name is important in the sentence
you try3
You Try…
  • My sister Alyssa is a hard worker.
    • Alyssa = appositive
    • Sister = noun it is describing
  • Chris, my next door neighbor, is a carpenter.
    • My next door neighbor = appositive phrase
    • Chris = noun it is describing
  • Will your cousin Tiffany visit you this summer?
    • Tiffany = appositive
    • Cousin = noun it is describing
  • Gino is playing with his favorite toy, the Thomas train set.
    • The Thomas the train set = appositive phrase
    • Toy = noun it is describing
  • Jackson Square, a landmark in New Orleans, has a statue of Andrew Jackson on it.
    • A landmark in New Orleans = appositive phrase
    • Jackson Square = noun it is describing