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Chapter 5: The Phrase. Part 1: Prepositional Phrases- The Adjective & Adverb Phrase. What is a phrase?. A group of words that is missing a verb, a subject, or both Examples: i n the kitchen (no subject or verb) c ould have been hiding (no subject) to go with them (no subject).

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Chapter 5: The Phrase


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    1. Chapter 5: The Phrase Part 1: Prepositional Phrases- The Adjective & Adverb Phrase

    2. What is a phrase? • A group of words that is missing a verb, a subject, or both • Examples: • in the kitchen (no subject or verb) • could have been hiding (no subject) • to go with them (no subject)

    3. Practice…Are these phrases or not • when you know • NP • in the garden • P (missing subject and verb) • is sleeping • P (missing subject) • how she remembered • NP • smiling brightly • P (missing subject) • to the supermarket • P (missing subject and verb)

    4. Kinds of Phrases • 1) Prepositional Phrase: • Begins with a preposition (remember your song…because now you really need it!!!) • Ends with a noun or pronoun

    5. Example Prepositional Phrases • during the day • Preposition: during • Noun/pronoun: day • with us • Preposition: with • Noun/pronoun: us

    6. Kinds of Phrases cont’d • 1A) The Adjective Phrase • A prepositional phrase that describes a noun or pronoun • So, it begins with a preposition and ends with a noun, but it goes back to or is giving extra information about a noun or pronoun • Charles Dickens wrote many tales{about poverty}. • about poverty = the adjective phrase (begins with about, ends with poverty) • tales = the noun it is giving extra information about

    7. Adjective Phrase cont’d • Answers the questions: • What kind? • How many? • Which one? • How much? **TIP** Adjective phrases usually follow the word or words they describe

    8. Adjective Phrase cont’d • You try… • Easy-----The store with the neon sign is open. • Harder----Here’s a gift for you from Mr. B. • Hardest-----A majority of the animals in the world sleep during the day.

    9. Adjective Phrase Answers: • Easy-----The store {with the neon sign} is open. • with the neon sign = adjective phrase • store = noun it is describing (answers: which one?) • Harder----Here’s a gift {for you} {from Mr. B}. • for you = adjective phrase • from Mr. B = adjective phrase • gift = noun that BOTH phrases are describing (answers: which one?) • Hardest-----A majority {of the animals} {in the world} sleep during the day. • of the animals = adjective phrase • majority = noun it is describing (answers: how many?) • in the world = adjective phrase • animals = noun it is describing (part of the 1st adjective phrase) (answers: what kind?)

    10. Kinds of Phrases cont’d • 1B) The Adverb Phrase • A prepositional phrase that describes a verb, adjective, or adverb • So, it begins with a preposition and ends with a noun, but it goes back to or is giving extra information about a verb, adjective, or adverb • The Ford Motor Company was founded {by Henry Ford} {in 1903}. • by Henry Ford = adverb phrase • in 1903 = adverb phrase • was founded = verb they are giving extra info about

    11. Adverb Phrase cont’d • Answers the questions: • When? • Where? • How? • Why? • How often? • How long? • To what extent? • **TIP** like adverbs, adverb phrases can move around in the sentence. Adjective phrases usually only follow the word or words they describe.

    12. Adverb Phrase cont’d • You try… • Easy----We got our new puppy at the animal shelter. • Harder----She drove for hours through the storm. • Hardest----The boat landed on the island near the coast.

    13. Adverb Phrase Answers • Easy----We got our new puppy {at the animal shelter}. • at the animal shelter = adverb phrase • got = verb it is describing (answers: where?) • Harder----She drove {for hours} {through the storm}. • for hours = adverb phrase • through the storm = adverb phrase • drove = verb that BOTH phrases are describing (answers: how long? and where?) • Hardest----The boat landed {on the island} {near the coast}. • on the island = adverb phrase • landed = verb it is describing (answers: where?) • near the coast = adjective phrase • island = noun it is describing (part of the adverb phrase) (answers: which one?)

    14. Chapter 5: The Phrase Part II: Verbal Phrases- The Participle & Infinitive Phrases

    15. What is a Participle? • A verb form that can be used as an adjective (describes a noun or pronoun) • 1) Present Participle = ends in “ing” • 2) Past Participle = ends in “d” or “ed” • Some past participles are irregular and do not have this ending • For example: frozen • I went ice skating on the frozen pond. • Frozen = past participle • Pond = noun it is describing

    16. Practice: pg 99-100 • Find the participles and nouns/pronouns they describe: • Annoyed, I went inside to watch TV. • Annoyed = past participle • I = pronoun it is describing • I woke my sleeping father to ask about mosquitoes. • Sleeping = present participle • Father = noun it is describing • Sucking blood for food, mosquitoes survive in many different cultures. • Sucking = present participle • Mosquitoes = noun it is describing • Bites make the skin swell, and the swollen skin itches. • Swollen = past participle • Skin = noun it is describing

    17. Participle Phrase • Participle phrases are used as adjectives (describes a noun/pronoun) • Begins with a participle and contains all describing words • Examples: • Stretching slowly • Predicted by the meteorologist • Reading the assignment

    18. Participle Phrases • Tips: • Look for words that end in “ing” or are past tense • Ask: Who or What is that word talking about? • Check to make sure the who or what is a noun • **Many times, these phrases have commas after them!

    19. You Try… • Cheering for the team, we celebrated the victory. • Cheering for the team (uses present participle) • Shown here, his design for the newest fighter jet was the first one in history. • Shown here (uses past participle) • Have you ever heard of International Left-Hander’s Day, celebrated on August 13? • Celebrated on August 13 (uses past participle)

    20. What is an infinitive? • A verb form that can be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. • Most infinitives begin with the preposition “to” • **They are ALWAYS followed by a VERB** • Examples: • To remain • To meet • To dream

    21. You Try… • My first stop would be to visit the Statue of Liberty. • To visit = infinitive • France gave the statue to the U.S. in 1884. • None • It was a gift to express the friendship between the two nations. • To express = infinitive

    22. Infinitive Phrases • An infinitive phrase begins with the infinitive (to + a verb) and contains all describing words & prepositional phrases • Examples: • To be a good gymnast • To fly over both the North and South Poles • To go to the gym now

    23. You Try… • A bird sings to claim its territory. • To claim its territory • Human beings learned to build aircraft by carefully studying the way birds fly. • To build aircraft • To recognize the songs of different birds takes many hours of practice. • To recognize the songs of different birds • Birds use their feathers to push their bodies through the air. • To push their bodies through the air

    24. Part III: Phrases Appositive Phrases

    25. What is an appositive? • It is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to describe or give more information about it. • Most often, they are surrounded by commas. • Example: • My teacher, Mr. Craig, enjoys books by Jane Austen. • Mr. Craig = appositive • Teacher = noun it is describing

    26. Appositive Phrase • A phrase that is giving more information about a noun or pronoun. • Examples: • Frankie, a goodhearted and intelligent girl, is a pleasure to teach. • Set off by commas & can be taken out • Trevor’s friend Mike sometimes gives Trevor poor advice. • Not set off by commas because Trevor has more than one friend, so Mike’s name is important in the sentence

    27. You Try… • My sister Alyssa is a hard worker. • Alyssa = appositive • Sister = noun it is describing • Chris, my next door neighbor, is a carpenter. • My next door neighbor = appositive phrase • Chris = noun it is describing • Will your cousin Tiffany visit you this summer? • Tiffany = appositive • Cousin = noun it is describing • Gino is playing with his favorite toy, the Thomas train set. • The Thomas the train set = appositive phrase • Toy = noun it is describing • Jackson Square, a landmark in New Orleans, has a statue of Andrew Jackson on it. • A landmark in New Orleans = appositive phrase • Jackson Square = noun it is describing