Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations. Objectives (slide 1 of 2). 5.1 Types of Social Groups Define what a social group is and describe types of groups. 5.2 Group Interaction and Leadership Describe the ways in which individuals interact within a group.
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Objectives (slide 1 of 2) 5.1 Types of Social Groups • Define what a social group is and describe types of groups. 5.2 Group Interaction and Leadership • Describe the ways in which individuals interact within a group. • Illustrate leadership styles in relation to the group structure. 5.3 Group Dynamics: Size, Diversity, and Conformity • Explain how group dynamics influence social interaction. • Discuss concepts of group dynamics.
Objectives (slide 2 of 2) 5.4 Formal Organizations • Describe the role and function of a formal organization. • Illustrate types of formal organizations. 5.5 Future Opportunities for Organizations • Describe two important ways that organizations are adapting to contemporary environments.
Social Groups • Social group:Two or more people who have something in common • Emergent properties:Properties of a group that emerge through the process of interaction
Aggregates An aggregate is defined as people who occupy the same physical space, but who have nothing in common.
Primary and Secondary Groups • Primary group:Cooley’s term for a group with which we feel a deep sense of belonging or intimacy • Secondary group: Cooley’s term for formal, impersonal groups that impact socialization
In-Groups, Out-Groups, and Reference Groups • In-groups:Groups to which we belong or identify with • Out-groups:Groups toward which we feel a sense of competition or antagonism • Reference groups:Groups by which we gauge ourselves and that act as reference points for future behavior
Social Networks • Social networks:Links that connect people to one another in a web of connections • Strong ties: Ties that link people in a close fashion • Clique:A small group of people who are part of a larger group and who interact with one another as a group in and of themselves • Weak ties:Links to people with whom we do not interact often or with whom we have weak social relationships
Fiske and the Four Elementary Forms of Social Action • Communal Sharing • Authority Ranking • Equality Matching • Market Pricing
Leadership Styles: Democratic, Authoritarian, and Laissez-Faire • Leader:A person who influences the beliefs, values, and behaviors of others
Leadership Functions: Instrumental versus Expressive Leadership • Instrumental leader:Also known as a task leader, a person who is responsible for leading a group toward the completion of a task • Expressive leader:Also called a socioemotional leader; a person who is responsible for maintaining group morale and smoothing tensions in a group
Group Dynamics • Group dynamics:How the individual influences the group and how the group influences the individual
Group Size The Dyad The Triad Triad:A group consisting of three people Because there are three possible interactions in a triad, it forms the basis for group stability. • Dyad:A group consisting of two people • Because there is only one possible interaction, a dyad remains a highly unstable social group.
Larger Groups As group size increases: • Group stability increases • Intimacy of interaction declines. • The group tends to become more formalized/ hierarchical. • The group has less of an influence over the individual. • It is easier to remain anonymous and therefore easier to dissent from consensus without rebuke.
Group Diversity • Heterogeneity: Diversity in groups • Homogeneous group:A group in which all people are similar
Group Conformity: The Asch Experiment • The Asch experiment tested whether a test subject would answer a question incorrectly based on the influence of other group members. • 33% of the people tested gave answers they knew to be incorrect in at least half of the trials. • 40% gave wrong answers, though less frequently. • Only about 25% of the subjects tested always gave the correct answer.
Groupthink • Groupthink:The tendency for groups to develop a rigid way of thinking • Characteristics of groupthink: • Illusion of invulnerability • Collective rationalization • Inherent morality of the group’s position • Stereotyped view of out-groups • Direct pressure to conform • Self-censorship • Illusion of unanimity • Self-appointed mind guards
Formal Organizations • Organization:A group that is deliberately constructed to achieve a purpose common to its members • Formal organization:Anorganization that is rationally structured to efficiently achieve specific goals using rules and regulations
Types of Formal Organizations • Not all formal organizations are the same. For instance, they may be classified according to the reasons that people choose to participate in them. Three general classifications of formal organizations have been identified: utilitarian, normative, and coercive.
Bureaucracies • Bureaucracy:An organizational model designed to achieve specific tasks in a very efficient way • Max Weber identified six traits that describe an ideal bureaucracy: • Specialization • Hierarchy of positions • Rules and regulations • Technical competence • Impersonality • Formal written communication
Organizational Environment • Organizational environment:Outside forces that influence the structure and performance of an organization, including: • Rules and regulations • Economic conditions • Competition • Technology • Availability of workers
Bureaucracies • Informal Aspects of Bureaucracy • Dysfunctions of Bureaucracy • Bureaucratic Ritualism and Rigidity • Bureaucratic ritualism:Afocus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining the goals of the organization. • Bureaucratic Inertia • Bureaucratic inertia:Thetendency of bureaucracies to perpetuate themselves over time. • Alienation
Future Opportunities for Organizations Globalism Flexible Workplace Examples: Flexible work hours Encouraging team problem-solving Communication technology connecting people in different geographies New forms of remuneration and benefits • Dividing tasks among different countries to capitalize on opportunities • Outsourcing non-skilled jobs to countries to increase profit • Opening new potential markets • Creating opportunities in developing countries through technology, ideas, and jobs