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COUNTDOWN TO COPENHAGENUnderstanding the negotiations: From Kyoto through Bali to Copenhagen and beyond Mithika MwendaCOORDINATOR PAN AFRICAN CLMATE JUSTICE ALLIANCE Tel: +254-20-4441483, 4441338/9, Cell: +254-724-403 555Fax: +254-20-4443241/4445835Email: mwemithika@yahoo.com, jmwenda@aacc-ceta.org, info@pacja.org

background of unfccc
BACKGROUND OF UNFCCC
  • Emerged on the political agenda in the mid-1980s with the increasing scientific evidence of human interference in the global climate system and with growing concern about the environment.
  • The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide policy makers with authoritative scientific information in 1988.
  • IPCC was tasked with assessing the state of scientific knowledge concerning climate change, evaluating its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts, and formulating realistic policy advice.
background of unfccc1
BACKGROUND OF UNFCCC
  • The IPCC published its first report in 1990 concluding that the growing accumulation of human-made greenhouse gases in the atmosphere would “enhance the greenhouse effect, resulting on average in an additional warming of the Earth’s surface” by the next century, unless measures were adopted to limit emissions.
  • The report confirmed that climate change was a threat and called for an international treaty to address the problem.
background of unfccc2
BACKGROUND OF UNFCCC
  • The UN General Assembly responded by formally launching negotiations for a framework convention on climate change and establishing an “Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC)” to develop the treaty.
  • Negotiations to formulate an international treaty on global climate protection began in 1991 and resulted in the completion, by May 1992, of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
background of unfccc3
BACKGROUND OF UNFCCC
  • The UNFCCC was opened for signature during the UN Conference on Environment and Development (“the Earth Summit”) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992, and entered into force in March 1994.
background of unfccc4
BACKGROUND OF UNFCCC

OBJECTIVE OF THE CONVENTION

  • The Convention sets an ultimate objective of stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at safe levels.
  • To achieve this objective, all countries have a general commitment to address climate change, adapt to its effects, and report their actions to implement the Convention.
background of unfccc5
BACKGROUND OF UNFCCC
  • The Convention divides countries into two groups:
  • Annex I Parties, the industrialised countries who have historically contributed the most to climate change, and
  • Non-Annex I Parties, which include primarily the developing countries.
  • African countries belong to Non-Annex I category, and have no obligation to cut down its greenhouse gases.
background of unfccc6
BACKGROUND OF UNFCCC
  • The objective could not be achieved since there were no legally binding obligations for any party to reduce its greenhouse gases
  • Meanwhile science continued to warn of dire consequences if the community of nation failed to seriously address the increased concentration of ghg gases in the atmosphere.
background of unfccc7
BACKGROUND OF UNFCCC

KYOTO PROTOCOL

  • Required countries to take commitment to reduce ghgs
  • Agreed in Japan in 1997 during COP3
  • Entered into force in 2005
  • Focused on mitigation (market-based)
  • Gave little priority to adaptation
  • Resultant mechanisms – Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which has not worked for Africa and the poor
where we are now
WHERE WE ARE NOW…
  • Legal mandate of Kyoto expires by 2012
  • There should be no vacuum
  • Science is very clear – we have reached the tipping point IPCC-AR4, 2007
  • Global consensus that CC will have effects on all efforts to reduce poverty, e.g. MDGs
  • Global dialogue for a regime to succeed Kyoto protocol which should be pro-poor, people-driven, equitable and just
  • Endless game of musical chairs – always shifting goalposts
the north south impasse
THE NORTH-SOUTH IMPASSE
  • Divided house - a lot of suspicion in discussions – conflicting positions
  • North wants South to take commitments
  • South says North has historical responsibility to assist in adaptation, reduce ghgs, etc
  • Some in South say they should be allowed to pollute to reach the same level as North
  • The civil society want a middle-ground, where all should take responsibility but putting into consideration their levels of development
racing against time
RACING AGAINST TIME…

Parties agreed on Bali Roadmap

This is intended to build consensus on main pillars of post-2012 climate change regime:

Adaptation

Mitigation

Technology transfer and deployment

Finance

Positive development: the roadmap has brought adaptation at the fore of negotiations – adaptation will find more space after 2009

no progress in poznan bonn i ii iii
NO PROGRESS IN POZNAN & BONN I, II, III
  • The lack of substantive progress overshadowed three positive process related outcomes :
  • A commitment to shift from discussion mode to full negotiating mode in 2009
  • A programme and schedule of talks in the run up to Copenhagen was agreed
  • The Adaptation Fund, set up to help poorer countries deal with climate change, is now operational
parties yet to make progress on
PARTIES YET TO MAKE PROGRESS ON:
  • A shared comprehensive equitable vision for the negotiations
  • The adequacy of emission reductions targets for Annex 1 countries
  • The scale and nature of the obligation of Annex 1 countries to provide adequate financial and technological support for clean development, avoided deforestation and adaptation in developing countries
key dates international
KEY DATES (INTERNATIONAL)
  • SEVERAL INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS IN THE COUNTDOWN TO COPENHAGEN
  • 29 March – 8 April 2009 – AWG, Bonn
  • 1 - 14 June – SBSTA 30, Bonn,
  • 10 August 2009 - 14 August 2009. Bonn, Germany, Informal meetings of the AWG-LCA and AWG-KP
  • 22 September 2009, UN H/Q, New York, US; high-level event on climate change for Heads of State and Government, by UN Secretary-General
  • Ad hoc Working Group for Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA) 7 and Ad hoc Working Group for the Enhancement of Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) 9, 28 September - 9 October, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2 November 2009 - 6 November 2009, Barcelona, Spain. A resumed AWG-LCA and the AWG-KP9
  • 7 - 18 December 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark. UNFCCC COP 15 and Kyoto Protocol COP/MOP 5
  • End of 2012 – Deadline for ratification of a new Climate deal
key dates africa
KEY DATES (AFRICA)
  • AMCEN is leading the consolidation of a unified African position – mandated by AU
  • Has an elaborate plan of action on continental engagement
  • 23 – 29 May 2009: 3rd AMCEN Session on climate change, Nairobi, Kenya
  • PACJA CS meeting – 23 - 24
  • 1 – 3: AU Heads of States Assembly on climate change, Sirte, Libya
  • 24 August 2009; Conference of African Heads of States and Governments on CC, shifted to Libya
  • Eastern Africa Climate Equity Summit – Nairobi, Kenya, April 2009
  • Southern Africa Climate Equity meeting, Johannesburg, SA, May 2009
  • 1st Pre-AMCEN African CS consultative workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 2009
  • Pan African Parliamentary Climate Summit, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 25 – 27, June 2009
  • African Parliamentary Summit on Climate Change, October, Nairobi, Kenya
  • 4th Special AMCEN session on CC, 19 – 21 Oct. - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • 2nd African civil society consultative/strategy workshop, 16 – 18, Oct, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

COMESA IS PLAYING A KEY ROLE IN THIS MOBILISATION

urgent collective actions
URGENT & COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
  • Consolidation of a critical mass: All stakeholders in Africa; governments, private sector and civil society should work together to boost their numbers & enhance visibility
  • Coalition of the willing and missionary approach: need to convert more, particularly influential constituencies, by creating awareness through appropriate channels: open air meetings, churches/mosques, parliaments, media, youth groups, women group, CBOs, petitions, etc
urgent collective actions1
URGENT & COLLECTIVE ACTIONS
  • Negotiators: Keeping a watchful eye and tracking African negotiators in UNFCCC and demanding report-back (accountability)
  • Pressure to governments: ensuring that negotiators are fully supported by their governments; technically & financially
  • Representation: African governments should be fully represented; due to lack of sufficient resources, civil society should work with government delegations as they can use their own resources
urgent collective actions2
URGENT & COLLECTIVE ACTIONS

FARNPAN, OTHER STATES & NON-STATE ACTORS

  • Should not be passive spectators in the debate
  • How should you engage others?
  • FARNPAN under ACCID is playing key role in general stakeholder engagement at continental & int’l level
  • What strategic alliances should FARNPAN and Southern African governments establish?
  • What plans will SADC/FARNPAN play in Copenhagen? And in Africa?
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Asante sana

Kea Leboha (Lesotho)

THANK YOU!