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Protection, Support & Locomotion Systems
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  1. Protection, Support & Locomotion Systems Ch 34 Guide & Intro to Coordination Systems

  2. Physical: SKIN SUPPORT MUSCULATURE Chemical: NERVOUS ENDOCRINE COORDINATION SYSTEMSSystems that Physically and Chemically coordinate the body:

  3. SYSTEMS: Multiple organs workingtogether to serve a body function • Tissues: cells working together to do a simple function • Organs: tissues working together to do a complex function • Cells: smallest basic units Respiratory system

  4. Systems are made of: Organs, Tissues, Cells,& connective tissues Tissues include: a. Epithelial tissue b. Muscle tissue c. Connecting tissue 1) Cartilage 2) Tendons 3) Ligaments Smoker’s Lung Tissue

  5. The Skin: 1. Structure………. a. Epidermis made of • epithelial cells b. Dermis with • sweat glands • hair follicles • oil glands • capillaries • nerve cells

  6. A. The Skin..……….. the largest organ in the body 2. Function: • protection • temperature control • sensory • integrity of the body • secretions from glands • produces Vitamin D

  7. Exoskeleton: Endoskeleton: Support Systems may be: Internal set of bones Hard outer covering

  8. Exoskeletons • Hard outer covering • made of chitin or shell • examples: lobster, snail, squid Does the starfish have and exoskeleton ?

  9. No !.. An Endoskeleton: Made of • 1). cartilage or • 2). bone Covered by • muscles • skin Examples: starfish, shark, mammals.

  10. B1. Human Endoskeleton made of Boo ! • Axial: skull, backbone, ribs, sternum • Appendicular: arms, legs, shoulders, hips,wrists, ankles

  11. Endoskeletons also have……. 1c. Ligaments that hold bone to bone 1d. Tendons that hold muscle to bone, “muscle tenders” 1e. Joints where 2 bones come together

  12. Types of Joints

  13. Joint Damage: Arthritis

  14. B2. Bone Formation:

  15. Bone Deformation: Lack of Vitamin D “Bow-legged”

  16. B3. The Support System Functions: • Protection of organs • Movement • Stores calcium & potassium • Produces RBC (marrow) • Supports

  17. C1.Three types of Muscle: • A. Smooth: involuntary control of internal organs for digestion, & blood vessels • B. Cardiac: involuntary control of the heart • C. Skeletal: Voluntary control of the skeletal muscles for movement

  18. The Musculature System…….. 2. Structure: • Voluntary Muscles Striated-Skeletal • Involuntary Muscles Cardiac- Heart Smooth-Stomach Striated Skeletal Several nuclei Box shaped, many mitochondria

  19. Cardiac Muscle: • Fewer Striations • Fewer Mitochondria • Large nuclei • Lattice work of spaces between some cells • Still square shape • One nuclei per cell

  20. Smooth Muscle: • Eye shaped • One nuclei per cell • No lattice work • No striations • Long & drawn out • Fewer Mitochondria

  21. How Do Muscles Contract? Muscle bundles work in opposite pairs: Contracting & Relaxing (biceps & triceps in the arms)

  22. 4a. Sliding Filament Theory of MuscleContraction: Relaxed Muscle Actin Muscles are made of • Bundles • Of fiberswith • Smaller subunits ofmyofibrils Myofibrils are made of • Actin & Myosin chemcials • require ATP energy • To slide past each other Myosin Contracted Muscle

  23. C6. Musculature System Function: • Movement • Stores Protein • Maintains Body Shape