Family Schools/Education Political Systems Economic Systems Religion. Social Institutions. Chapter 13:. Political & Economic Institutions. Power & Authority. Power: Ability to control others Use looks, charm, speaking ability Coercion- control through force (physical/threats)
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Family Schools/Education Political Systems Economic Systems Religion Social Institutions
Chapter 13: Political & Economic Institutions
Power: Ability to control others • Use looks, charm, speaking ability • Coercion- control through force (physical/threats) • Coercive governments are typically unstable. • Authority: Power that is accepted as legitimate • Functional and stable governments Power & Authority
Charismatic Traditional Rational-Legal Types of Authority
Authority that comes from a person’s personality Difficult to transfer power to another person Charismatic Authority
Authority coming from custom/tradition More stable than charismatic authority Examples: kingdoms/royalty, dynasties Traditional Authority
Power is in the office, not the people. Used by most modern governments Limits to power bound by expectations of their job/office Rational-Legal Authority
Authoritarian Totalitarian Democratic Political Systems
A ruler with absolute power tries to control all aspects of society • One political party • Control over communication systems, military, & economy • Well-organized campaign of terror • Examples: Nazi Germany, USSR Totalitarian
Controlled by elected or non-elected people who allow for some individual freedom Don’t allow popular participation in government Middle ground, leans more totalitarian Example: Fidel Castro/Cuba Authoritarianism
Direct Democracy (Pure Democracy) • Citizens vote directly, no representatives • Population has power • Representative Democracy • Use of elected officials to make decisions • Too many people to have them all participate • If elected officials don’t comply with peoples’ wishes, they won’t win again. Democratic
Equality, safety, services for citizens domestically & abroad Protection and proper use of national interests and resources Government Responsibilities
Why is it important to have citizens believe they have an impact on politics?
Political decisions come from compromise and bargains of special interest groups • Interest Group: organized group used to influence political decisions • Utilizes functionalist perspective in what is best for the entire society • Power is widely distributed. Pluralism
Society is controlled by a few individuals or groups, coming from similar backgrounds. • Use power to keep themselves in power • Based on Conflict Perspective • Power Elite • Top military, government, & corporate leaders Elitism
Year 102- Kim Il-Sung 51 social categories ranked by loyalty 28 approved haircuts 23000 Koreans have defected south, while 2 have defected north. 150,000-200,000 living in internment camps Only officials own vehicles. Sexiest leader worldwide Closed domestic internet network Marijuana and Opium are legal. Most militarized border in the world South Korean film director was kidnapped to make movies. Cannibalism No justice system No religious freedom Controlled radio in every household that cannot be turned off. Voting every 5 years with one candidate ballots Uniforms School subjects: Korean, mathematics, Physical Education, Drawing, Music, Politics North Korea (Totalitarianism)
Private property Ability to gain profit Production, distribution, and exchange of wealth by private individuals or industries Government plays very small role (only regulates to prevent abuse of consumers). No “pure” capitalist system Capitalism
Pros Competition to provide goods and services keeps prices low Rewards hard work Provides choice Allows for the building up of wealth and possessions Consumers regulate the market Cons Exploits people who cannot compete Uneven distribution of wealth Creates a money-oriented society Constant economic growth may deplete the earth’s resources Not focused on needs of society Pros and Cons of Capitalism
Monopolies- Control over a market by one company Oligopolies- A few companies/groups work together to control market Both limit a consumers options and choices Problems with capitalism
Socialism • Government ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods • No private property • A system or condition of society in which the means of production are owned and controlled by the state
Pros All members share benefits Those who cannot contribute may still participate (disabled, elderly) Each member’s survival needs are met Equal distribution of wealth No socioeconomic classes Cons No incentive to work harder No competition means no reward to be innovative New members to the community (immigrants) are seen as competition for limited goods and services Higher taxes Pros and Cons of Socialism
Government subsidized programs • Postal service • Rail lines • Libraries • Health care • Social programs • Roads • Infrastructure (bridges, freeways, etc.) • Can you think of any others?
Semi- Capitalist countries: America Canada Brazil Japan Mexico Socialist countries: Cuba Saudi Arabia Iran North Korea Burma Where in the world are…?
Mixed Economy • An economy in which some industries are privately owned and others are publicly owned or nationalized • Many capitalist economies are mixed economies (some capitalism and some socialism).
Which is best: Capitalist economy, Socialist economy, or a Mixed economy? • A free market exists with some regulation by the government • People can create their own businesses and make a profit • All businesses pay taxes, which benefit everyone
Communism “Needs” Socialism “DEEDS” • Political system • No religion • Provide for needs without using money; collectively owned • NO LEADER • NO SOCIAL CLASSES • Economic system • Freedom of religion • Means of production owned by public enterprise, controlled by workers • Able to be used in various political systems • Classes exist, roles diminished Where does Communism fit in?
Chapter 14 Religion
Religion- a unified system of beliefs and practices concerned with sacred things Sacred- holy; set apart and given a special meaning that goes beyond, or transcends, immediate existence Profane- nonsacred Sociological Meaning
Focus on religion as a human construct Focus on social aspects that can be measured and observed Do not study what parts of religions are correct or incorrect! Sociological Study Of Religion
Denomination- one of several religious organizations that most members of a society accept as legitimate Sect- a religious organization arising out of a desire to reform an old organization Cult- a religious organization whose characteristics are not drawn from existing religious traditions in a society RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATION
Focuses on contributions to society • Legitimizes social arrangements • Promotes social unity • Provides a sense of understanding • Encourages belonging Functionalism And Religion
Believe elite use religion to manipulate the masses • Justifies economic, political, and social advantages Conflict Theory And Religion
Believe people create symbolic meanings from their religious beliefs and rituals • Meanings guide social interactions. Symbolic Interactionism And Religion
The resistance of secularization and the rigid adherence to tradition Secularization- process through which the sacred loses influence over society Fundamentalism
Write down your religious affiliation. • List 5 of your close friends’ names. • Answer the following questions based on today’s lesson. • Do your friendships have anything to do with religion? Why/Why not? (Think about your friends if your religion was different.) • Have your friendships ever been tested because of religion? • How important is religion within your friendships? In-Class Work