penyakit interna veteriner i penyakit interna infeksius n.
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  2. Deskripsi • Membahastentangpenyakitsistemikinterna yang bersifatinfeksius, meliputipenyebab, gejala, aspekepidemiologis, penanggulangandanpencegahanpenyakt, carapenentuan diagnosis dantindakanterapipadaberbagaispesieshewan over view interna -1pts-2012

  3. Pokok pembahasan • Berdasarpadagejalaklinis • Berdasarpada pathogenesis • Perubahanpatologi organ • Perubahankualitascairantubuh • Indikasidiagnosapenyakitinfeksi • Pilihantindakanmedik over view interna -1pts-2012

  4. Requirements for surveillance based on clinical case • Occurrence of clinical illness • Sufficient severity to seek medical care • Availability of medical care • Capability of physicians to diagnose illness • Laboratory support of diagnosis • Reporting of disease to Health Department • Collection and analysis of data by Health Department over view interna -1pts-2012

  5. Synopsis (1) Infectious disease ( lemology, communicable disease) is: • A clinical medicine • A part of internal medicine over view interna -1pts-2012

  6. Synopsis (2) Infectious disease ( lemology, communicable disease) is: • To study the regularity of the occurrence and development of infectious disease in human body • To study etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, clinical manifestation and the methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention for infectious disease. over view interna -1pts-2012

  7. Synopsis (3) Infectious disease ( lemology, communicable disease) is: • In order to control spread of infectious disease in population • Infectious disease is related to biology, immunology, parasitological, epidemiology, pediatrics over view interna -1pts-2012

  8. Synopsis (4) • Infectious disease is: • A group of common disease • Caused by different pathogens • To possessing infectivity • To form epidemic • Infectious disease is a threat to the health of people • The pathogens causing infectious diseases are: virus, Chlamydia, rickettsia, mycoplasma, spirochete, bacteria, fungus, protozoa and helminthes over view interna -1pts-2012

  9. Infection and Immunity (1) Definition of infection • Complex process of interaction between pathogen and human body • Infection is composed of three factors: pathogen, host and environment • There are commensalisms and opportunistic infection over view interna -1pts-2012

  10. Infection and Immunity (2) Manifestations of infectious process (Infection spectrum) • Clearance of pathogen • Covert infection (subclinical infection) • Overt infection (Clinical infection or apparent infection) • Carrier state Health carrier after covert infection Convalescent carrier after overt infection Incubatory carrier before onset of diseases According to carrier time : acute (transient) carrier chronic carrier • Latent infection over view interna -1pts-2012

  11. Infection and Immunity (3) The action of pathogen in infectious process The pathogenicity of pathogen is related to : Invasiveness virulent Number of pathogen Mutation (variability) over view interna -1pts-2012

  12. Strategies for Surveillance of Infectious Diseases • Notifiable diseases – make it a statutory duty for physicians to notify the disease. • Infectious agent isolation or serologic evidence reported through diagnostic laboratories • Specific Epidemiological Studies e.g. hantavirus, hand foot and mouth disease surveillance over view interna -1pts-2012

  13. Laboratory based • Scientific source of information • Coherent and consistent information on trends of infection • Qualitative detail information over view interna -1pts-2012

  14. Removing the Source • Every pathogen has a reservoir, which may be in humans, animals or both. One may aim to remove the pathogen from the reservoir, or remove the reservoir completely. • Human Reservoir • Isolating the patient • Curing the patient completely • Preventing infection in susceptible individuals by vaccination over view interna -1pts-2012

  15. Removing the Source • Animal Reservoir • Isolating/observing the animal e.g. rabid dog • Eradicate the animals involved e.g. slaughter of rabid dog, vector control • Vaccinating the animals e.g. vaccination of dogs and foxes. It is very difficult to vaccinate wild animals. over view interna -1pts-2012

  16. Features of infectious disease Basic features Pathogen 9 kinds of pathogen Infectivity Epidemiological features Quality : exotic , local , endemicity Quantity : sporadic occurrence, epidemic, pandemic, outbreak, endemicity, seasonal over view interna -1pts-2012

  17. Features of infectious disease Basic features Post infection immunity Viral infection: life-long immunity Bacteria infection: shorter immunity Helminthes infection: no protective immunity Protozoa infection: shorter immunity over view interna -1pts-2012

  18. Features of infectious disease Clinical features Regularity in the development of cource • Incubation period : diagnosis , qurantine period • Prodromal period • Period of apparent manifestation • Convalescent period • Relapse • Recrudescence over view interna -1pts-2012

  19. Common symptoms and signs (1) • Fever: Three stages : effervescence fastigium deffervescence Five kinds of fever: sustained fever, remittent fever, intermittent fever, relapsing fever, saddle type fever. And irregular fever over view interna -1pts-2012

  20. Common symptoms and signs (2) Rash eruption Date of eruption 1st: chickenpox 2nd: scarlet fever 3rd: smallpox 4th: measles 5th: typhus 6th:typhoid fever Location of eruption Form of rash Exanthema :maculo-papular rash Petechia Vesiculo-pustular rash Ureicaria Enanthema over view interna -1pts-2012

  21. Common symptoms and signs (3) • Toxemic symptoms • Mononuclear phagocyte system reactions Hepato-splenomegale Lymphonodus enlarged • Clinical types acute, subacute, mild, common, severe, fulminant, typical, atypical, abortive, ambulatory over view interna -1pts-2012

  22. Diagnosis of infectious diseases • Epidemiological dates • Clinical features Symptoms and signs • Laboratory findings Routine examination of blood, urine, feces Bio-chemical examinations Etiological examinations Direct exam Isolation of pathogen Molecular biological examinations Immunological examinations Endoscope examinations Image examinations over view interna -1pts-2012

  23. Treatment of infectious disease • General and supporting therapy Isolation of patients, rest, diet, nursing • Pathogen or specific therapy • Symptomatic therapy • Rehabilitation Physiotherapy acupuncture • Traditional medicine over view interna -1pts-2012

  24. Prevention of infectious disease • Management of source of infection 35 kinds of notifiable infectious disease divided into 3 class First class: 2 kinds. Reported 6h in city, 12h in country. Second class: 24 kinds. reported 12h in city and country Third class: 9 kind • Cut off of route Personal hygiene, public hygiene, insecticide, disinfection • Protect susceptible population Actibe immunization Passive immunization over view interna -1pts-2012

  25. Beberapa contohpenyakit over view interna -1pts-2012

  26. Respiratory Problems • Respiratory complex: pasteurellasp., mycoplasma, chlamydia, Parainfluenza type 3 virus, etc. • Pasteurella sp. most common agent. • Characterized by high fever (106-108°F) • May result in lung abscesses at slaughter. • Poor ventilation is a leading cause of respiratory problems. • Treat with antibiotics Other causes: OPP, lungworms, nasal bots, ketosis, acidosis over view interna -1pts-2012

  27. Urinary CalculiWater belly, urolithiasis, calculosis, kidney stones • Proper ration balancing • Ca:P ratio should be at least 2:1. • Legumes are a good source of calcium. • Cereal grains have a poor ratio of Ca:P. • Commercial feeds are balanced for Ca and P. • Do not add anything to balanced rations. • Ground limestone can be added to the ration as a source of calcium. • Free choice minerals do not ensure proper intake of minerals. • Adequate water intake important • Salt in ration(0.5% ammonium chloride in diet) over view interna -1pts-2012

  28. Soremouthcontagious ecthyma, contagious pustular dermatitis, scabby mouth, orf • Most common skin disease of sheep and goats. • Caused by a virus from the pox family. • Causes lesions on mouth, lips, nostrils (teats, scrotum). • Problematic during lambing/ kidding season and if you show/exhibit. • Normally runs its course in 1 to 4 weeks. • Very contagious, including to people (orf). • There is a live vaccine for it. (don’t vaccinate if you’ve never had it). over view interna -1pts-2012

  29. ScrapieGoal is to eradicate by 2010 and for U.S. to be declared scrapie-free by 2017 • Fatal disease affecting the central nervous system of sheep and goats. • Neurological symptoms: • Intense itching • Behavior changes • Lack of coordination • Gait abnormalities • Tremors over view interna -1pts-2012

  30. ScrapieGoal is to eradicate by 2010 and for U.S. to be declared scrapie-free by 2017 Transmitted via infected placenta. • Males not considered to be a risk. • Can be spread by infected feed. • Contact/environmental transmission ??? Clinical signs appear 2 to 5 years (or later) after the animal has been infected. over view interna -1pts-2012

  31. Selamat belajar Sampaipada detail substansi, selamasatu semester. Semester enam penyakit internal non infeksiusdangenetik Penyakitinterna Patologiklinik Diagnosaklinik over view interna -1pts-2012