Research Permits and Material Transfer Dr. Lucie Rogo Consortium of the Barcode of Life http://www.barcoding.si.edu
Research Permits and Material Transfer • Research Permits and why they are needed. • How/ where to get a research permit • Material Transfer • Material Transfer Agreements/contracts • Benefits • Relevant references
Why a Research Permit is required Taxonomy is one science where no country has all expertise needed. It is a globally collaborative science, which builds supportive networks In the case of DNA barcording, collaboration is required to assemble the Global Reference Barcode Library Many within country and without country collaborative research efforts
Cross-Border Collaborations Collaborative activities between researchers across borders need to comply with the provisions of the CBD and the Bonn Guidelines on access to genetic resources and fair and equitable sharing of benefits.
The Convention on Biological Diversity The objectives of the CBD are: conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its components and fair and equitable sharing of benefits Rising out of the combination of these objectives, and recognition of national sovereignty over genetic resources is a new system of exchanging genetic resources referred to as “access and benefit sharing” (ABS)
Access and Benefit Sharing In order to gain access to resources, a user is required to provide benefits and In order to receive benefits a provider is required to facilitate access of biological material
Provisions for Access to Biological/ Genetic Resources Recognition of the sovereign rights of States over their natural resources: Authority to determine access to biological/genetic resources (specimens) rests with the national governments and is subject to national legislation Prior informed consent of the country of origin: Permission must be obtained from country of origin before access of biological/genetic resources.
Provisions for Access to Genetic Resources Mutually Agreed Terms: Terms of exchange of resources should be agreed upon before access of biological genetic resources Fair and Equitable Benefit-Sharing: Benefits should be shared fairly with local providers and countries
CBOL and CBD CBOL related research Should comply with CBD provisions and should: Recognizes national sovereignty over genetic resources Seek permission from country of origin before access (Research and collecting permits), Mutually agreed terms before access (Agreements/Contracts developed) Benefits are Provided.
Research/Collecting Permits Relevant research/collecting permits may be obtained from the designated National Competent Authority ( Some countries have relevant information on CBD Website) in cases of collaborative research or Other entities with actual responsibility to grant access of biological/ genetic resources
Research/Collecting Permits Within country counterparts should assist their research collaborators with obtaining research/ collecting permits. Some countries have relevant information on contacts of the competent authority issuing research/ Collecting permits on CBD Website .
Research Permits The CBD/ABS National Focal Point should be contacted for any information on ABS laws of a country. ABS Competent National Authority: www.cbd.int/doc/lists/nfp-abs-cna.pdf ABS National Focal Points: www.cbd.int/doc/lists/nfp-abs.pdf CBD website: www.cbd.int/ for CBD National Focal Point
DNA Barcoding and CBD Bonn Guidelines DNA barcording research is taxonomic (academic) in nature and non-commercial. The Bonn Guidelines recommends that “taxonomic research as specified in the GTI of the CBD should be facilitated and special terms and conditions should be established under mutually agreed terms to facilitate taxonomic research(includes permits for specimen collection”.
CBOL and CBD CBOL is working with the CBD to create awareness of importance of facilitating scientific research CBOL is organizing a Meeting in Germany next month that will discuss these issues which will feed into CBD work of developing an international regime for access of biological/ genetic material
DNA Barcodes and Species Identification CBOL promotes the use of DNA barcodes for species identification. The DNA barcode is a short gene sequence from standardized portions of the genome, used to identify species
Small ribosomal RNA The Mitochondrial Genome D-Loop Cytochrome b ND1 ND6 ND5 COI ND2 COI L-strand H-strand Typical Animal Cell ND4 ND4L COII ND3 COIII ATPase subunit 8 ATPase subunit 6 Mitochondrion An Internal ID System for All Animals DNA mtDNA
CBOL-Initiated Projects • Fish Barcode of Life (FISH-BOL) • 30,000 marine/freshwater species by 2010 • All Birds Barcoding Initiative (ABBI) • 10,000 species by 2010 • Tephritid fruit fly Initiative • 2,000 pest/beneficial species and relatives by 2008 • Mosquitoe Barcoding Initiative • 3,300 species by 2008 • African scale insects, lake fish, stem-borers, Plant
Projects, Networks, Organizations • Promote barcoding as a global standard • Build participation • Working Groups • BARCODE standard • International Conferences • Increase production of public BARCODE records
Material Transfer The process of developing reference barcodes for species can be done in-country but in some situations may include transfer of material to specialists in different laboratories outside of a country of origin Provisions concerning material transfer in the laws of the country of origin must be taken into consideration during any material transfer arrangements
Material Transfer Where national ABS laws do not exist, material transfer agreements can be negotiated with a counterpart. The basic requirements for the development of contractual arrangements can take into consideration contract development Guidelines for ABS in the Bonn Guidelines.
Key Elements in a Material Transfer Agreement Objectives of the research The scope of the work to include type of biological /genetic resources to be covered, geographic limit, activities and actors, timelines Institutions to oversee exchange of genetic resources
Elements of Material Transfer Agreement ctd. Access determination process (application, review of application, access determination by national competent authority, appeal) Benefit sharing arrangements Implementation and enforcement and dispute resolution provisions
Benefits Documentation of national heritage and improved biodiversity inventories. Training of taxonomists, scientists and parataxonomists Transfer of technology involved in DNA barcording Promotion of museum and herbarium reference collections Development of national biodiversity information infrastructure for biodiversity resources Promotion of research directed towards national priority needs, such as health and food security Institutional Capacity Improvement
Relevant Reference The Swiss Academy of Science tool on access and benefit sharing good practice for academic research is a good information resource for academic researchers and provides guidance on concrete access situations http://abs.scnat.ch/ Bonn Guidelines: www.cbd.int/decisions/cop-06.shtml?m=COP-06&id=7198&lg=0
2008: CBOL Member Organizations • 170+ Member organizations, 50+ countries • 54 Member organizations from 20+ developing countries
CBOL’s Mission:Promoting DNA Barcoding as a Global Standard Developing/raising community standards Barcode projects to populate database Global participation and coordination Adoption by regulatory agencies Acceptance by taxonomic community Excitement in other fields of science Product development by private companies
BOLD Data System Developed/hosted by Univ. Guelph Workbench for assembling data 300,000 records from 30,000 species Management and Analysis System Identification system for matching unknowns to reference records Uploading to GenBank
Linking GenBank to Vouchers www.biorepositories.org
Outreach Activities Regional meetings in: South Africa, April 2006 Kenya, October 2006 Brazil, February 2007 Taiwan, September 2007 Upcoming: Nigeria, China, India Second International Barcode of Life Conference Taiwan, September 2007 Funding support from CBOL, host governments and international development agencies
CBOL & Bee Barcoding Initiative Promoting the global participation in the Bee Barcode of Life Initiative (BeeBOL) Expanding the participation of African researchers and initiatives in the BeeBOL Promoting barcoding as a standard practical, reliable approach to pollination –related specimen identification for taxonomists and non-taxonomists in Africa and elsewhere
CBOL & Bee Barcoding Initiative Identifying applications of DNA barcoding in bee pollination research, and initiating planning and implementation of projects in pollination in Africa and elsewhere. Creating mutually beneficial partnerships with the African Pollinator Initiative (API), The GBIF Pollinator Campaign, ARPPIS and other initiatives.