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WASTE NOT, WANT NOT! (WN) 2 INSTITUTE Environmental Issues of E-Waste. Train-the-Trainer Workshop June 14 – 18 th , 2004 Center for Mathematics and Science Education University of Arkansas - Fayetteville Presented and Hosted by

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waste not want not wn 2 institute environmental issues of e waste

WASTE NOT, WANT NOT! (WN)2 INSTITUTEEnvironmental Issues of E-Waste

Train-the-Trainer Workshop

June 14 – 18th, 2004

Center for Mathematics and Science Education

University of Arkansas - Fayetteville

Presented and Hosted

by

A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded institute sponsored by the University of Arkansas and the Center for Mathematics and Science Education

Lynne Hehr

Director, Center for Mathematics and Science Education

University of Arkansas

Stephan Pollard

Doctoral Student, Environmental Dynamics Ph.D. Program

University of Arkansas

municipal solid waste msw

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE(MSW)

Problems Overview

Presented as part of

WASTE NOT, WANT NOT (WN)2: Environmental Issues of Waste Disposal

Stephan PollardEnvironmental Dynamics ProgramUniversity of Arkansas June 14, 2004, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas

slide3

Leachate Seepage in Johnson, AR (Not associated with Tontitown Landfill)

1. Lead

Ex. -

2. Cadmium

Ex. -

3. Mercury

Ex. -

4. Others

1. Petroleum hydrocarbons

Ex. -

2. Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

Ex. -

Pathway: Disappearing Stream

3. Ketones

Ex. -

4. Others

Ex. -

Leachate – A Toxic Soup

  • Heavy Metals

batteries, plastics, cans, used oil, lightbulbs, other

batteries, plastics, nonfood packaging, electronics, other

circuit boards, thermometers, flourescent bulbs, other

  • Organic Compounds

paint, thinner, primer, and remover, glue, gasoline

solvents, degreasers, vinyl chloride, other

solvents such as acetone

  • Organometallic Compounds

Methylmercury

result of bacterial transformation of mercury

  • Dissolved Solids (minerals)
slide4

Tontitown Class 1 Landfill exceeded permitted Action Leakage Rate

(i.e., secondary leachate collection system collected more than 21 gal/day/acre)

At one point there was an average rate of 25 gal/day/acre

  • Record keeping deficiencies
  • Failure to respond appropriately to excessive Action Leakage Rate
  • General concern for potential threat to human health
    • April 26, 2002 – WMTL Class I landfill CLOSED!

Source: July 10, 2002 ADEQ Hosted Public Meeting in Springdale, AR

waste management tontitown landfill

Class 1 Landfill:

Solid, non-hazardous waste from households, businesses, and industry

Current: 66 acres

Proposed Expansion: 46 acres

E

E

G

G

E

E

E

G

M

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION

E

M

G

M

M

G

M

Vinyl Chloride

Cadmium

G

G

Landfill Gas

M

Class 1

G

Class 4

M

ACTIVE

MONITORING

E

M

E

G

E

Class 4

M

E

E

E

E

Extent Well (17)

G

G

M

G

G

M

E

G

Monitor Well (10)

G

E

E

G

Landfill Gas Probe (16)

E

E

G

Class 4 Landfill:

Inert, non-putrescible wastes that do not degrade, or degrade very slowly

Waste Management Tontitown Landfill

Arbor Acres Rd

Little Wildcat Creek

Wheeler Rd

Source: Pre-Site Report for Proposed Lateral Expansion of WM Tontitown Class I Landfill, July 14, 2003, ADEQ Memorandum; July 10, 2002 ADEQ Hosted Public Meeting in Springdale, AR

garbage trash rubbish waste
GARBAGE / TRASH / RUBBISH / WASTE!

First garbage crisis -

When human beings became sedentary starting to farm (10,000 – 5,000 years ago)!

Four basic methods of garbage disposal – all familiar for thousands of years

  • Dumping it
  • Burning it
  • Turning it into something useful (recycling)
  • Minimizing the volume of material goods – future garbage (source reduction)

We’ve been disposing of garbage for so long that we know what is the most convenient thing to do – dump it or burn it!

  • In Old Testament times the people of Jerusalem burned some of their garbage in fires emanating from natural gas vents in the nearby Valley of Gehenna.
  • Colonial times – wastes dumped outside villages or burned as fuel
  • First modern landfills in the U.S. – Midwest in the early 1900s

Health threat, garbage removal, and public responsibility

  • 1757 Benjamin Franklin instituted the first municipal street cleaning service in the U.S.
  • Mid 1700’s American households began digging refuse pits, as opposed to throwing garbage out windows and doors
slide7

What was the recovery rate for recycling (including composting)? _____

What is Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)?

  • Technical term for: ___________________________

garbage, trash, waste, or rubbish

  • Coined in:

1976 when Congress passed the ______________________________ Act

Resource Conservation and Recovery

  • The Act divided the solid waste stream into municipal solid waste and _____________

hazardous waste

  • MSW includes waste from three main categories: 1) Durable Goods, 2) Non-Durable
  • Goods and, 3) _____________________ and includes non-manufactured items and
  • inorganics

Containers and packaging

Overview of MSW: 2001 Facts and Figures

  • How much MSW generated? _______________

(Decrease of 2.8 million tons from 2000 (due to slowed economy))

229.2 million tons!

  • How much MSW per person per day? ______

(Decrease of 2.2% from 2000)

4.4lbs!

29.7%

(Increase of 0.5% from 2000)

  • What was the per person per day recycling rate? _____

1.3lbs

(3.1lbs per person per day after-recycling discard rate)

Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

slide8

RECOVERED

Less than 0.05%

e.g.,

Glass packaging

Steel packaging

Aluminum packaging

Paper & Paperboard packaging

Plastics packaging

Wood packaging

e.g.,

Newspapers, books, magazines

Clothing and foot wear

Pet supplies

Towels, sheets, pillow cases

Plastic plates and cups

Paper plates and cups

e.g.,

Furniture

Jewelry

Luggage

Rubber Tires

Carpets and Rugs

Appliances

Consumer electronics

Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

slide9

Generation of Products in MSW, 1960 - 2001

229 million tons

88 million tons

Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

slide11

Includes waste from residential, commercial, and institutional sources

* Includes lead from lead-acid batteries.

** Includes recovery of other MSW organics for composting.

Neg. = Less than 5,000 tons or 0.05 percent.

Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011 citing Franklin Associates, Lt.

slide12

Generation of Materials in MSW, 1960 - 2001

229 million tons

All Other*

Yard

Food

88 million tons

Plastics

Metals

Glass

Paper

Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

slide13

Recovery 29.7%

Land Disposal 55.7%

Combustion 14.7%

Where does it go?

Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

slide14

Burn Barrels and Open Burning

A recent federal study indicates that just a handful of such fires can spew as much dioxin as a large municipal incinerator does!!!!

Burning PVC plastic

Studies indicate backyard burning is one of the most significant sources of dioxin

See Lemieux, P.M., et al. 2000. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels.

Environmental Science & Technology 34(Feb. 1):377-384.

slide15

Municipal Solid Waste Management, 1960 - 2001

229 million tons

88 million tons

Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

types of landfills
Types of Landfills

Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

  • Receive household refuse, industrial waste, construction and demolition debris, and other waste
  • Not permitted to receive ‘hazardous waste’
  • Source of groundwater contamination – percolation of rain and liquids

Industrial Waste Landfills

  • Receive waste from industrial processes
  • Not permitted to receive ‘hazardous waste’
  • Source of groundwater contamination – percolation of rain and liquids

Construction and Demolition Landfills

  • Receive waste from construction and demolition of buildings, bridges, and roads
  • Not permitted to receive ‘hazardous waste,’ industrial waste, or municipal solid waste
  • Source of groundwater contamination – percolation of rain and liquids