synchronic changes in language n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Synchronic Changes in language PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Synchronic Changes in language

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 37

Synchronic Changes in language - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 220 Views
  • Uploaded on

Synchronic Changes in language. Lecture # 28. Review of lecture 27. Changes occur because they are natural – just as human behaviour changes Language in the state of constant variation because it is transmitted from one generation to the next. Change slow but sure,

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Synchronic Changes in language' - thu


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
review of lecture 27
Review of lecture 27
  • Changes occur because they are natural – just as human behaviour changes
  • Language in the state of constant variation because it is transmitted from one generation to the next.
  • Change slow but sure,
  • Sometimes it is unnoticed & becomes prominent over long period of time
review of lecture 271
Review of lecture 27
  • Change neither for good, nor for bad, but just for the suitability – just for need.
  • Language change can be studied along two lines – Diachronic and Synchronic
  • Examples: Chaucer – Milton – T.S.Eliot

Old English – Middle – Modern English

Diachronic variations

review of lecture 272
Review of lecture 27

Diachronic variations

  • Meaning changed sometimes due to its continuous use in particular context, Extension, Euphemism, metathesis, spellings, syntax,

Synchronic Variations

Language contact, dialect, register

review of lecture 273
Review of lecture 27

Language contact

  • Indian English
  • Pidgin
  • Creole
  • Esperanto
syntactic changes
Syntactic changes

Varieties of dialect

  • The variety of language according to the user is called Dialect.
  • It is determined by a speaker’s social and geographical background.
  • Language may vary from one region to another on geographical plane.
syntactic changes1
Syntactic changes
  • That is why it is difficult to talk about a single entity – British English
  • In Britain there are numerous varieties – Lancashire dialect, Scottish dialect, Yorkshire dialect etc.
  • Same true for American English
syntactic changes2
Syntactic changes
  • Dialectical variations are also determined by social hierarchy and social class.
  • The aristocrat in London use one variety & lower class uses another variety.
  • The RP (Received Pronunciation) used to be the dialect of upper class society of England, although it has now expanded its regional and social boundaries.
syntactic changes3
Syntactic changes
  • Dialects are sometimes conditioned by religion and caste also.
  • Within the same religion dialectical differences are conditioned by caste.
  • Within a given language there are a number of dialects.
  • Between two dialects there may be grammatical, lexical and phonological differences (they may have same core system of language in common
syntactic changes4
Syntactic changes
  • General American English and RP are two different dialects of English. They differ in many ways as shown below:

RP Gen. American

Last /La:st/ /Læst/

Dance /da:ns/ /dæns/

Missile /ˊmısdıl/ /ˊmısıl/

syntactic changes5
Syntactic changes

RP Gen. American

Class /Kla:s/ /Klӕs/

Vitamin /vitәmɪn/ /vaɪtəmɪn/

Differences at the level of syntax

US British

different than different from

check that out check up on that

syntactic changes6
Syntactic changes

Lexical differences

US British

Gas Petrol

candy chocolate

Elevator Lift

Jelly Jam

syntactic changes7
Syntactic changes

Morphology

dive – dove dive – dived

(Past) (Past)

Graphology (Spellings)

Program Programme

color Colour

Realize Realise

syntactic changes8
Syntactic changes

Dialect Map:

  • On the basis of Morphology, Phonology, Syntax, etc., it is possible to draw imaginary boundaries separating the geographical areas using divergent linguistic items.
  • The boundary line separating the users of one area using a particular linguistic item from the area using the other linguistic item is called an Isogloss
syntactic changes9
Syntactic changes
  • We can draw a number of isoglosses in a similar fashion.
  • All such isoglosses may overlap and form a sort of bundle.
  • The phenomenon is called ‘bundling’.
  • A bundle of isoglosses is considered a ‘dialect boundary’.
syntactic changes10
Syntactic changes
  • Dialect dictionary: Such dialects are now being studied in greater details (dialectology).
  • The lexicons of these dialects have been compiled.
  • Such a lexicon is called dialect dictionary.
syntactic changes11
Syntactic changes
  • Sociolect: A social dialect or a class dialect used by the number of a particular group of a speech community is called Sociolect. For example, slang, used by young people.
  • Diglossia: Sometimes a speech community uses two dialects but there is a strong tendency to use one of these for special, prestigious or formal occasions.
syntactic changes12
Syntactic changes
  • The prestigious dialect is called ‘high’ and the informal commonly spoken one is called ‘low’.
  • These two are not allowed to intermingle.
  • Such a use by speech community is called Diglosia, e.g., high and low Arabic.
  • Within a given dialect one may find differences of speech between individuals. No two speakers speak exactly alike.
syntactic changes13
Syntactic changes
  • The term ‘idiolect’ is used to refer to the idiosyncracies of an individual speaker.

These peculiarities can be those of pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, etc. Language variations present in individuals as well as societies & they can become regular and systematic in terms of individual’s own use of linguistic code.

syntactic changes14
Syntactic changes
  • Though the notion of idiolect and style may overlap, idiolect is different from style in the sense that style is more often a matter of choice.
  • A person’s style can vary in different situations of speech and writing, e.g. a poet may choose one style for one poem and another style for other poems
syntactic changes15
Syntactic changes
  • Idiolect is consistent over the whole of an individual’s use of the language and is often like an unconscious mannerism.

Language & dialect

It is sometimes very difficult to say whether A and B are different languages or just different dialects of the same language.

syntactic changes16
Syntactic changes
  • If two speakers are mutually intelligible, they are using the same language even if they are using different dialects.
  • If they are not intelligible, they are using different languages.
  • It is, in fact, difficult to draw rigid boundary lines between languages.
syntactic changes17
Syntactic changes
  • A dialect rises to the status of language when a community speaking a certain dialect is politically and socially powerful
syntactic changes18
Syntactic changes

Register

  • The same individual uses different varieties of language depending upon the situation.
  • Language according to the situation is called ‘Register’.
  • Professor’s example – classroom language, kitchen, convocation
syntactic changes19
Syntactic changes
  • Example: Mr. John speaking to his wife, colleague and boss
  • To wife: Met that fool jolly today. Wants his job back, can you imagine?
  • To colleague: Do you remember Jolly Smith? I met him today and he said he’d like his job back. I think he’s too optimistic, do you?
syntactic changes20
Syntactic changes
  • To Boss: I met Mr. Jolly Smith yesterday, Sir, who used to work in the stores. He asked me to fine out if he could again join his post. I only said I’ll pass on your request and find out the position. Should he have any hopes, sir?
  • Different registers – formal, informal, linguistics, law, literary, commerce, science, business etc.
syntactic changes21
Syntactic changes

Classification of Registers

(i) Register according to field of discourse

  • Register according to the mode of discourse

Some distinctions

syntactic changes22
Syntactic changes
  • (i) Register & dialect

Register Dialect

1.Variations of use variations according to user

2. A single speaker

May use number of

registers for different

situations

syntactic changes23
Syntactic changes

Register Dialect

It is determined by It is determined by

Situation in which speaker’s background

Speaker is

It is conditioned by determined by caste,

Situations & need of region, social status

speaker

syntactic changes24
Syntactic changes

Register Dialect

It shows what you are It shows who or

doing. (or what) you are

(ii) Dialect and accent

Dialect Accent

Combination of all levels limited to one area

Of language, pronunciation, of language-

Grammar, vocabulary pronunciation (RP)

syntactic changes25
Syntactic changes
  • Dialect & Language

Dialect Language

  • Smaller, range – larger in range &

smaller area size

2. Used for limited greater number of

number of functions functions

syntactic changes26
Syntactic changes

Dialect Language

3. Often doesn’t have has official status

Official status

4. Not codified in formal codified &

writing, in grammars & standardized, in

Dictionaries & may not writing, gr & dic,

Have official literature has written lit.

syntactic changes27
Syntactic changes

Dialect Language

Often considered has social prestige

Less prestigious

summary
Summary

Varieties of dialect

  • The variety of language according to the user is called Dialect.
  • It is determined by a speaker’s social and geographical background.
summary1
Summary
  • General American English and RP are two different dialects of English. They differ in many ways as shown below:

RP Gen. American

Last /La:st/ /Læst/

Dance /da:ns/ /dæns/

summary2
Summary

Register

  • The same individual uses different varieties of language depending upon the situation.
  • Language according to the situation is called ‘Register’.
  • Different registers – formal, informal, linguistics, law, literary, commerce, science, business etc.
summary3
Summary

Classification of Registers

(i) Register according to field of discourse

  • Register according to the mode of discourse