Seven-year-olds allocate attention like adults unless working memory is overloaded
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Seven-year-olds allocate attention like adults unless working memory is overloaded. Nelson Cowan Candice C. Morey Angela M. AuBuchon Christopher E. Zwilling Amanda L. Gilchrist (2010). memory and learning. martin @ s pecken .nl. 1: For 1.0 seconds - Fixation. Attend to … (‘classroom’).

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Memory and learning

Seven-year-olds allocate attention like adults unless working memory is overloaded

Nelson Cowan

Candice C. Morey

Angela M. AuBuchon

Christopher E. Zwilling

Amanda L. Gilchrist

(2010)

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

1: For 1.0 seconds - Fixation working memory is overloaded

Attend to … (‘classroom’)

circles

triangles

both equal

(‘boys’)

(‘girls’)

(‘boys + girls’)

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

2: For 0.5 seconds - Remember color + location working memory is overloaded

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

3 working memory is overloaded: For 1.5 seconds - Retention interval

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

4: Probe working memory is overloadeddisplay - Type 1 = No change

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

4: Probe working memory is overloadeddisplay - Type 2 = Location change

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

4: Probe working memory is overloadeddisplay - Type 3 = New color

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

4: Probe working memory is overloadeddisplay - Type 4 = Other shape’s color

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Previous studies working memory is overloaded

  • Whenchildrengetoldertheirvisualworkingmemoryincreases. Why?

visualworkingmemory

youngerchildren

olderchildren

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Hypothesis working memory is overloaded

  • Youngerchildren are lessable to exclude irrelevant items fromworkingmemory to make room for relevant items.

workingmemory

workingmemory

Youngerchildren

workingmemory

workingmemory

Olderchildren

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

An impression of the speed. Ready? working memory is overloaded

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

memory and learning working memory is overloaded

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

memory and learning working memory is overloaded

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

memory and learning working memory is overloaded

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

memory and learning working memory is overloaded

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

The method 1/5 working memory is overloaded

college students18+

grades 6 + 7

12 – 13 years old

grades 1 + 2

7 – 8 years old

30 participants

30 participants

30 participants

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

The method 2/5 working memory is overloaded

10 possible circles, 10 possible triangles, both in 10 colors

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

The method 3/5 working memory is overloaded

8.19 cm

8.19 cm

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

The method 4/5, Trial condition 1-shape working memory is overloaded

Probe: 50% no-change

Probe: 25% location-change

Probe: 25% new-color

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

The method 4/5, Trial condition 100% working memory is overloaded

Array: 50% attended shape, 50% other shape

Probe: Always the attended shape, 50% no-change, the rest divided: location-change/other color/new color

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

The method 4/5, Trial condition 80% / 20% working memory is overloaded

Same as the 100% condition, except

Probe: 20% is the shape that had to be ignored

Probe: 40% no change

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

The method 4/5, Trial condition 50% / 50% working memory is overloaded

  • Probe:

    • 50% in location of a circle in the array

    • 50% in location of a triangle in the array

    • Change/No-change distribution as in 100% condition

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Expected capacities A: Same working memory + working memory is overloadedbetter filtering in group 2

2 - More-advancedgroup

Proportion correct

1 - Less-advancedgroup

Usually-testedshape

Not-usually-testedshape

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Expected capacities B: More working memory in working memory is overloadedgroup 2 + same filtering

2 - More-advancedgroup

Proportion correct

1 - Less-advancedgroup

Usually-testedshape

Not-usually-testedshape

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Expected capacities C: More working memory in working memory is overloadedgroup 2 + better filtering in group 2

2 - More-advancedgroup

Proportion correct

1 - Less-advancedgroup

Usually-testedshape

Not-usually-testedshape

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Results 1/7, 1-shape condition working memory is overloaded

k = No. array objects in working memory

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Results 2/7, 1-shape condition working memory is overloaded

Clear effect groups > peak > decline

age 7-8

age 12-13

age 18+

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Results 3/7 – 2 or 3 objects: working memory is overloaded

Attention young children is adult-like?

YES

NO

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Results 4/7 – 2 or 3 objects: working memory is overloaded

Significant interaction attention <-> age?

NO

YES

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Results 5/7 – 2 objects: working memory is overloaded

Large difference working memory depend on attention?

NO

NO

YES

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Results 6/7 working memory is overloaded

Compared with expectations

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Results 7/7 working memory is overloaded

Young children filter out items as well as older?

YES

NO

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Nestor question working memory is overloaded

Katja:

“It is mentionedthatworkingmemorycapacityincreasesduringelementary school, I wonder ifthismeansthat the neural basis develops, orifit is ratherdue to learninghow to filter informationwhen a lot of otherinformation are present in workingmemory?”

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

What do you think? working memory is overloaded

  • Wouldyoungchildrenbeable to attendexperimentslikethis?

    • Whatwoulditbelike?

    • Howcan we do this?

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Thanks for your attention working memory is overloaded

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Additional info working memory is overloaded

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Additional info working memory is overloaded

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Additional info working memory is overloaded

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Additional info working memory is overloaded

Bunge & Wright: “A growingliteratureindicatesthatincreasedrecruitment of task-related areas in frontal, parietal and striatalregionsunderliesimprovements in workingmemory and cognitivecontrol over the course of middlechildhood and adolescence.”

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl


Memory and learning

Additional info working memory is overloaded

Informationonhow to participateyoungchildren in experiments

memory and learning

martin@specken.nl