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OMBOON VALLISUTA AND SURAPHAN SIRITHAMWANICH* DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOGNOSY FACULTY OF PHARMACY, MAHIDOL UNIVERSITY * TTM DOCTOR. COMPARISON OF TTM TEXT WITH INDIAN TEXT. THAILAND PREHISTORIC EVIDENCES (500,000 years). INFLUENCES FROM OTHER CULTURES.

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slide1
OMBOON VALLISUTA AND SURAPHAN SIRITHAMWANICH*

DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOGNOSY

FACULTY OF PHARMACY, MAHIDOL UNIVERSITY

* TTM DOCTOR

COMPARISON OF TTM TEXT WITH INDIAN TEXT

influences from other cultures
INFLUENCES FROM OTHER CULTURES
  • INDIAN CULTURAL TRADITION( ARTS AND SCIENCES)TAVARAVADI B.E. 8-14
  • KHOM EMPIRE B.E. 15 - 18
  • SUKHOTHAI PERIOD (START THAI KINGDOM)

A.D. = B.E. – 543 YEARS

2011 = 2554

krun or palava stone inscription
KRUN OR PALAVASTONE INSCRIPTION

AT PATHOM JEDI, NAKORN PATHOMTHAILAND

thai traditional medicine ttm
THAI TRADITIONAL MEDICINE (TTM)
  • ORIGIN FROM AYURVEDA
  • RELATED TO BUDDHISM
  • UNIQUE FLORA
  • UNIQUE TRADITIONAL MEDICINE (THEORY/ FORMULATION/ MASSAGE)
medicinal plants utilised since buddha s time
MEDICINAL PLANTS UTILISED SINCE BUDDHA’S TIME
  • Cinnamomum camphora
  • Cassia fistula
  • Holarhhena dysenterica
  • Oroxylum indicum
  • Piper retrofractrum
  • Cartharmus tinctorius
  • Acacia catechu
  • Morinda citrifolia
  • Ferula foetida
  • ETC
ayurvedic etiology
AYURVEDIC ETIOLOGY
  • HEALTH IS DHATU-EQUIPOISETRIDHATU (VATA, PITTA, KAPHA) NORMAL
  • ILL-HEALTH IS DHATU-IMBALANCE TRIDHATU (VATA, PITTA, KAPHA) ABNORMAL OR TRIDOSHA

IM-TTM

causes of ill health
CAUSES OF ILL-HEALTH

Behaviours, external objects, seasonal effects

RESULTS:ATIYOGA excess functionHEENAYOGA defect functionMITHYA-YOGA qualitative change

resulting in abnormality of Dosha-equilibrium

IM-TTM

ill health caused by mind
ILL-HEALTH CAUSED BY MIND

A stimulation of the adrenal gland produces all phenomena of anger and rage, conversely, the production of anger and rage affects the secretion of the adrenal gland.. Emotion can cause rapid exhaustion.

physiology tri dhatu sitthanta theory of the three humours
PHYSIOLOGY: TRI-DHATU SITTHANTA(THEORY OF THE THREE HUMOURS)
  • VATA (Akash and vayu )
  • PITTA (Theja)
  • SLESMA OR KAPHA (Prithvi and Apo )

PANCHA-MAHABHUTA:

Akash, Vayu, Theja, Prithvi and Apo

AIR WIND FIRE EARTH WATER

IM

diseases caused by doshas
DISEASES CAUSED BY DOSHAS
  • DISEASES CAUSED BY VAYU: 80 DZ
  • DISEASES CAUSED BY PITTA: 40 DZ
  • DISEASES CAUSED BY KAPHA: 20 DZ

THE NUMBER OF DZ ARE THE SAME BOTH IN INDIAN AND TTM TEXTS

IM-TTM

indian definition of tri dhatus
INDIAN DEFINITION OF TRI-DHATUS
  • A NORMAL PERSON HAS A CERTAIN COMBINATION OF TRI-DHATUS i.e. EACH HAS HIS OWN EQUILIBRIUM AMONG TRI-DHATU VATA-PITTA-KAPHA
  • THERE ARE CERTAIN PROPERTIES TO EACH OF TRI-DHATUS

IM

vata property
VATA PROPERTY
  • RUKSA DRY
  • LAHU LIGHT
  • SITA COLD
  • KRAHA IRREGULAR
  • SUKASAMA INVISIBLE
  • JALA MOVING

IM

pitta property
PITTA PROPERTY
  • SNEHA LIGHTLY VISCOUS
  • TIKTASANA QUICK
  • USNA HOT
  • LAHU LIGHT
  • VISERUM BLOODY SMELL
  • SORAMA QUICKLY ABSORBED
  • TARAVAM LIQUID

IM

kapha properties
KAPHA PROPERTIES
  • SANIKTA HIGHLY VISCOUS
  • SITA COLD
  • KURU HEAVY
  • MONTHA SLOW
  • SALAKSANA SOFT
  • MARUTSANA SLIPPERY
  • SATIRA STABLE

IM

prakriti temperament
PRAKRITI (TEMPERAMENT)
  • VATALA
  • PITTALA
  • SHLESMALA
  • VATA-PITTA
  • VATA-SHLESMA
  • PITTA-SHLESMA
  • VATA-PITTA-SHLESMA

IM

divisions of tri dhatus
DIVISIONS OF TRI-DHATUS
  • THERE ARE 5 DIVISIONS FOR EACH DHATU
    • VATA
    • PITTA
    • KAPHA

IM

vayu and its 5 divisions
VAYU AND ITS 5 DIVISIONS
  • PRANABREATHING, SWALLOWING,BLOOD VESSELS
  • UDANA UPWARD MOVEMENT, SPEECH,MIND
  • SAMANA MAINTAIN PITTA AND KAPHA IN A STATE OF EQUILIBRIUM (SAMA)
  • APANA DOWNWARD MOVEMENT, STOOL, URINE
  • VYANA DESTROYS THE ORGANS OF THE BODY , AGGRAVATES DZ, ANIHILATES THE SENSE OF PLEASURE

FROM “BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AYURVEDA” 1980

IM

pitta and its 5 divisions
PITTA AND ITS 5 DIVISIONS
  • PACAKA OR AGNI DIGESTION IN STOMACH AND DUODENUM
  • RANJAKABLOOD FORMATION IN LIVER, SPLEEN
  • SADHAKAMEMORY AND MENTAL FUNCTIONS
  • ALOCAKA VISION
  • BHRAJAKACOLOUR AND GLAZE OF THE SKIN HELPS IN SKIN ABSORPTIONFROM “BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AYURVEDA” 1980

IM

kapha and its 5 divisions
KAPHA AND ITS 5 DIVISIONS
  • AVALAMBAKA LOCATED IN STOMACH
  • KLEDAKAHELPS IN DIGESTION
  • BODHAKA PERCEPTION OF TASTES, SALIVA
  • TARPAKANOURISHMENT OF THE EYES
  • SLESAKALUBRICATION OF JOINTSFROM “BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AYURVEDA” 1980

IM

biochemical processes jiva rasayana
BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSESJIVA-RASAYANA

ANABOLISM

CATABOLISM

MALA DHATU (3)

KUTHA (Feces)

MUTRA (Urine)

SWETA (Sweat)

  • NUTRIENTS (3)
    • ANNA (Solid food)
    • UTHAKA (Liquid food)
    • PRANA (Gas)
  • SAPTA DHATUS (7)
    • RASA (Chyle, Lymph)
    • RAKTA (Blood)
    • MAMSA (Muscle)
    • METHA (Fat)
    • ASTHI (Bone)
    • MAJJA (Bone Marrow)
    • SHUKRA (sperm and ovum)

IM

metabolism and the 7 dhatus
METABOLISM AND THE 7 DHATUS
  • Food  Rasa ( in stomach, and duodenum) and Mala
  • Rasa  Rakta
  • Rakta  Mamsa
  • Mamsa  Medha
  • Medha  Asthi
  • Asthi  Majja
  • Majja  Shukra

OJA DHATU

(the essence of life)

is formed at each properly transformation step

TTM also use this word

THIS IS THE SECONDARY MEANING OF DHATU

IM

ttm dhatu
TTM – DHATU
  • TECHO-DHATU 4 TYPES
  • VAYO-DHATU 6 TYPES
  • APO-DHATU 12 TYPES
  • PATHAVI-DHATU 20 TYPES

THESE DHATUS CAN BE THE CAUSES

OF DISEASES – DHATU SAMUTHAN

TTM

dhatu samuthan
DHATU SAMUTHAN
  • TECHO DHATUOR FIRE ELEMENT 4 types
  • SANTAPAKKIBODY WARMTH
  • PARITAIAKKITEMPERATUE CONTROL
  • CHIRANAKKIAGING
  • PARINAMAKKIDIGESTION AND METABOLISM

TTM

dhatu samuthan31
DHATU SAMUTHAN
  • VAYU SAMUTHANOR WIND ELEMENT6 types
  • ATHOKAMAVATAmove up
  • UTANGKAMAVATA

Move down

  • KOTASYAVATAinside GI
  • KUCHISYAVATA
  • UNKAMUNKANUSARIVATA (CVS)
  • ASSASA/ PASSASA VATA (to inhale/ to exhale)

TTM

dhatu samuthan32
DHATU SAMUTHAN
  • APO DHATUOR WATER ELEMENT12 types
  • BLOOD
  • LYMPH
  • SOLID FAT
  • LIQUID FAT
  • BILE (INSIDE GB)
  • BILE (OUTSIDE)
  • SALIVA
  • ETC

TTM

dhatu samuthan33
DHATU SAMUTHAN
  • PATHAVI DHATU OR EARTH ELEMENT20 types
  • HAIR
  • TEETH
  • SKIN
  • BONE
  • LIVER
  • UDARIYAN
  • GRISAN
  • ETC

TTM

the germ theory of disease vs the seed and the soil or the tri dosha theory
THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASE vsTHE SEED AND THE SOIL orTHE TRI-DOSHA-THEORY
  • PARASITIC GERMS, TRAUMAS, POISONS ARE EXTRINSIC CAUSES OR AGANTU - - AGANTU CAUSATIVE FACTORS
  • IF THE SOIL IS UNSUITABLE - -> NO GERMINATION - > NO DISEASE

IM

tridosha vata pitta kapha
TRIDOSHA* VATA, PITTA, KAPHA
  • VATAOXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
  • PITTACATABOLISMpepsis
  • KAPHAANABOLISM

IDA LINE

PINGALA LINE

SUCHUMNA LINE

*RELATED TO PRANA CHAKRA SYSTEM AND GURUNADI

slide37

THAI PRANA CHAKRA

*** the lines connected with olan chakra

diagnosis by palpation

IM-TTM

DIAGNOSIS BY PALPATION
  • CONSIDERED AS THE MOST IMPORTANT PATIENT EXAMINATION
  • PULSE IN THE RADIAL ARTERY AT THE WRIST
  • USE 3 FINGERS (INDEX, MIDDLE, RING FINGERS)
  • COMPRESSIBILITY, FREQUENCY, REGULARITY, SIZE AND DIFFERENT IMPRESSIONSe.g. serpent creeping -> wind predominancejumping like a frog -> bile predominancestrutting of a peacock -> phlegm predominance
slide40

DIAGNOSIS

vata

pitta

kapha

Related to 14 prana chakra energy lines

IM-TTM

slide41

pitta

vata

kapha

DIAGNOSIS

Related to 14 prana chakra energy lines

IM-TTM

seasonal effects vs tridoshas
SEASONAL EFFECTS vs TRIDOSHAS

A = accumulation, Al = alleviation, Ag = aggravation

slide43

MARCH

APRIL

FEBRUARY

MAY

JANUARY

Aries

Te-choDhatu Patta-pitta

Taurus

Pathavi Dhatu

Hatayan

Capricon

Pathavi Dhatu

Grisan

Gemini

Vayo Dhatu

Hataivata

JUNE

Cancer

Arpo Dhatu

Sorsemha

Sagittarius

Te-choDhatu

Gumdao

JULY

Leo

TechoDhatu Apattapitta

Scorpion

Arpo Dhatu

Ura-semha

DECEMBER

Virgo

Pathavi Dhatu Utariyan

Libra

Vayo Dhatu

Sattaga-vata

AUGUST

OCTOBER

SEPTEMBER

NOVEMBER

Pisces

ArpoDhatu

Koota-semha

Aquarius

Vayo Dhatu Sumana-vata

SUMMER

WINTER

increase

defect

RAINNY

decrease

TTM

herbology in ayuveda
HERBOLOGY IN AYUVEDA
  • RASAS (INITIAL TASTE)
  • GUNA (VIRTUE) MATERIA MEDICA
  • VEERAYA (POWER; HOT OR COLD)
  • VIPAKA (POST DIGESTION EFFECT)SWEET, SOUR, PUNGENT UNALTEREDSALINE -> SWEET, BITTER AND ASTRINGENT -> PUNGENT
  • PRABHAVA (INHERENT NATURE)

IM

the six tastes
RASAS vs TRIDOSHASTHE SIX TASTES

REDUCE INCREASE

  • MADHURA VAYU, PITTA KAPHASWEET
  • AMLA VAYU PITTA, KAPHA SOUR
  • LAVANA VAYU PITTA, KAPHA SALTY
  • KATU KAPHA PITTA, VAYUPUNGENT
  • TIKTA PITTA, KAPHA VAYU BITTER
  • KASHAYA PITTA, KAPHA VAYU ASTRINGENT

IM

herb combinations with same uses
HERB COMBINATIONS WITH SAME USES
  • TRIPHALA TERMINALIA CHEBULA T. BELLERICA PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA
  • TRIKATU GINGER, PEPPER, LONG PEPPER

IM-TTM

some herbs with same uses
SOME HERBS WITH SAME USES

These herbs are used together as TRIPHALA

IM-TTM

some herbs with same uses49
SOME HERBS WITH SAME USES

These herbs are used together as TRIKATU

(the three pungent drugs)

IM-TTM

citraka haritaki therapeutic uses
CITRAKA HARITAKITHERAPEUTIC USES

GULMA Abdominal cramp

UDAVARTA Upward movement of gases

PINASA Sinusitis

KASA Cough

SAVASA Dyspnoea

ARSA Piles

AGNIMANDYA Loss of appetite

KSIYA Pthisis

KRIMI Helminthiasis

DOSE 6-12 g daily in divided dose with warm water

conclusion
CONCLUSION
  • MISSING TEXT FROM TTM CAN BE STUDIED FROM INDIAN MEDICINE
  • AYURVEDA, SITTHA, YOGA FOR CONCEPTS AND THEORY
  • AYURVEDA FOR SCIENTIFIC STUDIES ON MEDICINAL PLANTS
  • UNANI FOR MEDICINAL PLANT USES
  • OTHERS ; DAI-LUE, SRI-LANKA, TAMIL

FOR PRANA CHAKRA, PULSE READING