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Worm Infections. Microbiology 2314. Helminth Phyla. Phylum Annilida Phylum Aschelminthes / Nematoda Phylum Platyhelminthes.

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worm infections

Worm Infections

Microbiology 2314

helminth phyla
Helminth Phyla
  • Phylum Annilida
  • Phylum Aschelminthes / Nematoda
  • Phylum Platyhelminthes
slide4

Human intestinal parasites worms cause constipation, stomach bloating, anemia, asthma, diarrhea, digestive disorders, fatigue, low immune system, nervousness, and skin rash.

slide5

There can be over 100 different types of parasitic worms living in human bodies. Some are microscopic in size while others can be seen quite easily.

folk remedies
Folk Remedies
  • Honey
  • Spider Webs
  • Kerosene
  • Willow Bark Tea
  • Eating Clay
  • Maggots and Blow flies
  • Leeches
  • Chile Peppers
honey
Honey
  • Honey has been used as a cure for burns since it was recommended by Aristotle. 
  • Honey retains heat, so the burn must first be cooled with cold running water or ice cubes, then honey applied to the burned area. 
  • Raw honey contains antibiotics, and promotes healing of burns leaving very few scars. 
  • Not that long ago, East Bloc medics used raw honey for burns and blisters on soldiers in the field. 
spider webs
Spider Webs
  • Spider web contains a substance that is very effective in stopping bleeding and preventing infection. Applying a wad of spider web to a fresh cut will stop the bleeding
slide14
"I shall desire you of more acquaintance, good master cobweb," said the character Bottom in A Midsummer Night's Dream. "If I cut my finger, I shall make bold of you."
kerosene
Kerosene
  • It was used to treat head lice. The person's head would be rinsed with kerosene which then would be left in for a period of time. The kerosene would be washed out and the treatment repeated when necessary.
slide16

Kerosene has also been used for hemorrhoids. Using a rectal compress saturated with kerosene still can afford many people relief, especially for extremely irritated, external hemorrhoids occurring after childbirth.

  • The most common and beneficial use for kerosene is as a first aid antiseptic for cuts and scrapes. Applying kerosene to a cut helps stop the bleeding and prevent infection. It promotes healing and does not burn.
  • Athlete's foot also responds well to daily applications of kerosene.
willow bark
Willow Bark
  • The use of willow bark dates back to the time of Hippocrates (400 BC) when patients were advised to chew on the bark to reduce fever and inflammation.
  • Willow bark has been used throughout the centuries in China and Europe, and continues to be used by herbalists today for the treatment of fever, pain (particularly low back pain), headache, and inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. White willow or related species are all effective.
slide18
Clay
  • Eating earth (geophagy) is universal. You do it in a refined manner each time you chug Kaopectate, Di-Gel, Rolaids, Mylanta, Maalox, or Donnagel-PG.
slide19

In these products, the active ingredients of clays (kaolin) or certain earths (calcium carbonate) have been isolated from the earth mass, but that slippery, earthy feel still stays in the mouth.

chile peppers
Chile Peppers

http://www.fiery-foods.com/dave/bushmedicine.html

slide21
"Cayenne pepper - prized for thousands of years for its healing power.  Folklore from around the world recounts amazing results using cayenne pepper in simple healing and in baffling health problems. But cayenne pepper is not just a healer from ancient history.
  • Recent clinical studies have been conducted on many of the old-time health applications for this miracle herb. Again and again, the therapeutic value of cayenne pepper has been medically validated."Dr. Patrick Quillin  The Healing Power of Cayenne Pepper
slide22
Capsicum (cayenne pepper) builds the tissue in the stomach and the peristaltic action in the intestines. 
  • Has been known to stop heart attacks within 30 seconds and reduce the risk of strokes.
  • Boosts circulation and increase heart action.
  • Expedites the therapeutic delivery and action of nutrients in the body.
  • Relieves muscle and joint pain.
  • Detoxifies the colon.
  • Preventative against respiratory infections.
biotherapy
Biotherapy
  • Biotherapy is the use of living organisms for medical treatment or as an adjunct to medical diagnosis.
biotherapy1
Biotherapy
  • J.F. Zacharias, a Confederate medical officer in the Civil War, is documented as having used the larvae of the green blow fly to prevent gangrene in wounded soldiers. Gangrene occurs when a body part dies due to interference with its nutrition. "Maggots in a single day would clean a wound much better than any other agents we had at our command," reported Zacharias. "I am sure I saved many lives by their use."
slide28
Debridement is an essential component of wound care as the presence of devitalised tissue can impede the healing process. Larval therapy has been used for the debridement of wounds for several hundred years.
slide33
In 1994, a woman's scalp was ripped off when her hair was yanked into moving machinery. Doctors performing micro-surgery at the University of Southern California reattached the scalp, but one area swelled with congested blood. They applied leeches, one at a time for eight days, to suck up stagnant blood. Eventually new capillaries, or tiny blood vessels, formed in the scalp wound, leading to healing circulation.
slide34

All leeches have two suckers — one on each end of its body — and the mouth end has hundreds of teeth. When applied to an injury or reattached limb, leeches dig their teeth right into the flesh and start sucking. Surprisingly, the bite doesn't seem to hurt. That's because leech saliva contains a natural anesthetic, or pain-killer.

slide36
Leech saliva is also full of other important curative chemicals. One is called hirudin, which keeps blood from clotting. Scientists have devised a method to genetically engineer hirudin, which they hope to prescribe as an alternative treatment for unclogging blood vessels during heart surgery.
  • Another leech benefit is an agent that prevents bacteria from infecting the wound area. And a third is a vasodilator, which causes human blood vessels to open.
leeches reduce the pain of osteoarthritis
Leeches Reduce the Pain of Osteoarthritis
  • Results from a pilot study on osteoarthritis of the knee as reported in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.
  • The study focused on 16 patients, average age 68, who had had persistent knee pain for more than six months. Exercises, physiotherapy, relaxation techniques, and dietary changes were already part of their treatment program.
slide39

Leech therapy was tried on 10 patients, eight of whom were women.

  • Six others were given conventional treatment for pain.
  • Four leeches were applied to the painful knee and left in place for one hour and 20 minutes.
  • Pain measures were recorded three days before the start of the treatment and 28 days afterwards it had finished.
  • Leech treatment produced rapid pain relief after three days, with the greatest effects registered 24 hours after treatment.
slide40

Patrick L., recovering at Harborview Medical Center, was lifted from the deck of a fishing ship off the Aleutians after his hand was severed by a fish saw.

More than 24 hours after the accident, Patrick was in an operating room at Harborview Medical Center, where a medical team reattached bone to bone, artery to artery and nerve to nerve.

Leeches were used to reestablish blood flow and reduce swelling.

slide46

Adult Pinworm

1 in 5 Children have Pinworms

case study 1
Case Study 1
  • Background: Enterobius vermicularis is known to produce perianal and ischioanal abscesses and invade the peritoneal cavity via the female reproductive system, causing pelvic peritonitis. However, there are only rare case reports on the cytodiagnosis of these parasitic lesions.
  • Case: A 28-year-old woman was admitted with a tender left iliac mass and greenish vaginal discharge. Ultrasonogram scan confirmed the presence of a mass lesion suggestive of a tuboovarian abscess. Cytologic examination of the pus obtained revealed the presence of ova of E vermicularis and fragments of the adult worm in an inflammatory exudate consisting predominantly of neutrophils, eosinophils and occasional epithelioid cell granulomas. Paraffin sections of the tuboovarian mass showed granulomas, but neither ova nor any worm section was identified. Although the possibility of tuberculosis was considered histologically, Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) stain for acid-fast bacilli was negative. Z-N staining of the smear and mycobacterial culture of the pus also did not yield positive results.
case study 2
Case Study 2
  • The section through the lumen of the appendix reveals a female pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. In this cross section, numerous eggs measuring 50 to 60 microns by 20 to 30 microns are seen. The eggs are flattened on one side.
  • The female migrates to the perianal region to lay eggs, resulting in pruritis ani. Direct ano-oral infection can occur; the eggs can remain viable in the environment for two weeks and are resistant to most household disinfectants.
slide82

This a pile of Ascaris worms collected from people living in a small village in the south of India. The worms will mainly have come from children.

slide92

The only way to remove the

Worm is to wind it on a stick.

This is time consuming.

slide113

Removal of Sparganosis mansoni, a tapeworm larva, from eye. Adult tapeworms can reach lengths of 100cm or 40 inches. After penetrating the mucosa lining of the small intestine, they migrate systemically throughout the body, invading a variety of tissues and organs, and can live for years.

june 19 2009
June 19, 2009
  • Nestlé is voluntarily recalling all its refrigerated and frozen chocolate chip cookie dough.  The FDA and CDC warn of the risk of contamination with E. coli O157:H7. 
slide125

Eggs in the liver.  Two of the several eggs in this section are labeled, and the granulomas (*) that have formed around the eggs are typical of the damage that occurs in the livers of infected hosts.

slide128
Eating raw fish can result in anisakiasis, an infection caused by an infestation of Anisakis worm larvae.
  • Now, don't panic, it's not that bad. These are LITTLE worms. They grow up to a mere one inch in length.
slide129

If you're lucky, the worms will wind up in your stomach, where the chief symptom is generally a sudden attack of intolerable pain. It starts within 12 hours after eating the affected fish and continues for two or three days, until the worms expire.

  • If you're not as fortunate, the larvae head to your intestines or lungs, where they can take up permanent residence.
slide133
Worldwide increase in infections as consumption of sushi has increased.
  • You exhibit a food allergy to this food-borne parasite, Anisakis simplex (nematode).
  • Causes human Anisakiasis (‘herring worm disease’) and induces immune reactions such as gastrointestinal reactions and asthma.
slide137

A patient infected suffering from river blindness. This elderly man shows nodules, skin changes and blindness, all manifestations of the disease.

slide147

The mosquitoes become infected by feeding upon infected animals and the worms enter a new host’s bloodstream via a puncture bite.

lymphatic filariasis
Lymphatic filariasis
  • Spread by mosquito bite
  • Lodge in lymph vessels
  • Results in fluid retention with swelling in extremities
slide152

The long, threadlike worms block the body's lymphatic system--a network of channels, lymph nodes, and organs that helps maintain proper fluid levels in the body by draining lymph from tissues into the bloodstream.

slide172
A 20-year-old college student went to his doctor with draining sores on his right arm and back. He had a "twitchy" sensation around the lesions for 1 week. One month earlier, he returned from an extended trip to Costa Rica, where he camped in the rainforest and swam daily in the ocean. The sores developed and worsened over the past several weeks, and he was treated twice with amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin). Nothing was helping.
slide177

This young boy was minding his own business when he felt an eye irritation. Thinking that it was just regular dust, he started to rub his eye, in an effort to remove the dust. Then his eyes got really red, so his mom bought some eye drops from the pharmacy.

slide178

Again they dismissed it as dust & continued rubbing, hoping it would go away. As the days went by, the swelling of his eye got worse & the redness increased until his mom decided it was time to go and see a doctor for a check up. The doctor immediately wanted an operation, being afraid of a tumor growth or cyst.

slide181

FYI

What was thought initially to be just mere dust actually was an insect's egg......

At the operation, what was thought to be a growth or cyst, actually turned out to be a live worm (actually an insect larva).

slide182

The female botfly glues her eggs onto the abdomen of a captured mosquito or other common fly. When the carrier insect lands on a human, the larva, or bot, hatches, burrows into the skin, and positions itself "head down" to feed, breathing through caudal respiratory spiracles. A furuncle with a central pore develops as the bot matures, molting twice until reaching 18 to 24 mm.

slide183

Your Honor, my hosts name was Johnson. I swear that I didn't know he was taking the kids out of the country