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PREVENTION OF PEDIATRIC OBESITY
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  1. PREVENTION OF PEDIATRIC OBESITY William J. Cochran, MD, FAAP Department of Pediatric Nutrition Geisinger Clinic, Danville PA

  2. Faculty Disclosure Information In the past 12 months, I have no relevant financial relationships with the manufacturer(s) of any commercial product(s) and/or provider(s) of commercial services discussed in this CME activity. I do not intend to discuss an unapproved/investigative use of a commercial product/device in my presentation.

  3. WHY WORRY ABOUT PEDIDATRIC OBESITY?

  4. Prevalence of obese children and adolescents

  5. RISK OF OBESE CHILDREN BECOMING OBESE ADULTS

  6. IMPACT OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY ON ADULT HEALTH • Adverse effects of childhood obesity on adult health • Increased rates of all cause mortality in adulthood • Increased rates of mortality from CAD in adult males • Increased morbidity from CAD in adult males and females

  7. IMPACT OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY ON ADULT HEALTH • Adverse effects of childhood obesity on adult health • Increased rates of colon cancer in males • Increased rates of arthritis in females • Childhood obesity may be a greater predictor of complications in adulthood than obesity in adulthood

  8. CHILDHOOD OBESITY IS ALSO ASSOCIATED WITH PROBLEMS IN CHILDHOOD

  9. PEDIATRIC OBESITY IS NOT JUST A COSMETIC PROBLEM!

  10. TREATMENT OF PEDIATRIC OBESITY IS AVAILABLE AND CAN BE EFFECTIVE • PREVENTION IS PREFERABLE

  11. What is the etiology of pediatric obesity?

  12. PREVENTION: PRECONCEPTION • Prevention starts prior to conception • Obese adolescents have an 80% probability of being obese as an adult • Today's adolescents are tomorrows parents • The risk of obesity in a child born to obese parents is significantly increased • Parents act as role models for their children • Need to educate and intervene in childhood to help prevent obesity in subsequent generations

  13. PREVENTION: POST CONCEPTION • Routine prenatal care • Advocate appropriate weight gain during the pregnancy • LGA infants and infants of diabetic mothers have higher rates of subsequent obesity • SGA infants also at higher risk • Hediger ML et: Pediatrics104:e33, 1999

  14. PREVENTION: POST CONCEPTION • Promote breastfeeding prior to delivery • Dewey 2003: 8 out of 11 studies noted a lower rate of obesity in children if breastfed vs. formula fed • Bergmann 2003: Longitudinal study of breastfed vs. formula fed infants • BMI the same at birth • BMI at 3 & 6 months > in formula fed vs. breastfed infants • Rate of obesity at 6 years was 3 fold greater in formula fed vs. breastfed

  15. PREVENTION: INFANCY • Advocate for continued breast feeding • The duration of breastfeeding is inversely associated with the risk of overweight • Harder T. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;162(5):397-403 • Avoid over feeding formula feed infants • Monitor growth curve including weight for length curve • Excessive weight gain associated obesity • Taveras EM et al. Weight status in the first 6 months of life and obesity at 3 years of age. Pediatrics 2009;123:1177-1183

  16. PREVENTION: INFANCY • Educate parents about beverages • No nutritional need for juice for at least the first 6 months of age • 1-6 year olds limit juice to 4-6 oz per day • Provision of sweet beverages promotes desire to consume sweet beverages • The use and misuse of fruit juice in pediatrics. Pediatrics 107:1210-1213, 2001.

  17. PREVENTION: INFANCY • Introduction of solids • Do not introduce solids until 4-6 months of age • Introduce vegetables first • Infants born with preference for sweet • Continue to provided the food even if initially rejected • Breast fed babies are more willing to accept other new foods compared to formula fed infants

  18. PREVENTION: INFANCY • Promote parental interaction with infant • Discuss TV • Do not use TV as a “Baby sitter” • AAP recommends no TV for the first 2 years of life • AAP recommends no TV in bedroom • Children, adolescents and television. Pediatrics 107:423-426, 2001

  19. PREVENTION: INFANCY • TV in bedroom • 40% of 1-5 year olds have TV in bedroom • Children with TV in bedroom • Watch more TV • Have higher rates of obesity • Associated with increased sedentary time • Promotes more social isolation • Dennison, BA et al. Pediatrics 109:1028-1035, 2002.

  20. PREVENTION: INFANCY • Identify those at risk • Family history • Risk of obesity 9% if both parents are lean • Risk of obesity 60-80% if both parents are obese • Sibling over weight (genetics vs. obesigenic environment) • Ethnicity: African-American, Hispanic • Large for gestational age • Small for gestational age

  21. PREVENTION: INFANCY • Identify those at risk • Lower socioeconomic status • Rural setting • Both parents work • Single parent family • Little cognitive stimulation • Lack of safe play areas • Family stress • Strauss, RS et al. Pediatrics 1999;103 (6) e-pages

  22. PREVENTION: TODDLER • Discuss beverages • 20% of obese children are obese due to excessive caloric consumption from beverages • Soda has 150 calories per 12 oz • Juice on average has 120 calories per 8 oz • For every 100 calories consumed per day in excess will result in 10 pound weight gain per year • Promote consumption of water when thirsty

  23. PREVENTION: TODDLER • Do not use the “clean the plate rule” • “Parents provide, children decide what to eat” • Parents should provide a healthy array of food and appropriate portions • Child’s intake varies from day to day • Do not use food as a reward

  24. PREVENTION: TODDLER • No TV for children less than 2 • Promote physical activity • Free play • Play with parents as well as friends

  25. PREVENTION: PRESCHOOLER • Measure and plot BMI • Monitor BMI • If increasing BMI % even if “normal” this is a red flag • Review BMI curve with parent and child • Provide positive reinforcement for being normal • Being over weight at one time between ages of 24 and 54 months was associated with a 5 fold increased risk of obesity at 12 years • Nader, PR et al. Pediatrics 118: e594-601, 2006

  26. PREVENTION: PRESCHOOLER • Anticipatory guidance • Nutrition • Discuss beverages • Do not use “clean the plate rule” • Do not use food as reward • Offer balanced diet: fruits, vegetables, high fiber

  27. PREVENTION: PRESCHOOLER • Anticipatory guidance • Physical activity • Promote free play time • Encourage special family time that is physically active • Think about physical activity opportunities • Walk up steps instead of taking the elevator • Park at a distance from store • 50% of car trips are less than 5 miles

  28. PREVENTION: PRESCHOOLER • Anticipatory guidance • Physical activity • Limit sedentary time • Discuss screen time: <1-2 hours per day • Higher rates of obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in those who watch >2 hours per day • Prevention of pediatric overweight and obesity. Pediatrics 112; 424-430, 2003 • Pardee et al., American J of Preventive Medicine, December 2007 • Martinez-Gomez D et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009;163:724-730

  29. PREVENTION: PRESCHOOLER • Anticipatory guidance • Life style • Do not eat in front of TV • >60% of commercials during children’s programming are related to food • Increase appetite / desire for these foods • Tend to over eat: do not pay attention to if they are full, eat until food is gone • Children who eat in front of TV consume higher fat and salt foods and less fruits and vegetable than those who do not

  30. PREVENTION: PRESCHOOLER • Anticipatory guidance • Life style • Limiting screen time in children 4-7 years of age associated with lower BMI • Associated with decreased caloric intake • Epstein,LH et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Me 162(3): 239-245, 2008

  31. PREVENTION: PRESCHOOLER • Anticipatory guidance • Life style • Stress the fact that parents act as role models for nutrition, physical activity and life style • Promote the family meal • Conversation slows down the eating process • Parents determine the food that is to be consumed • Parents can monitor intake of food • Family meals associated with higher consumption of fruits, vegetables and milk • Family meals associated with lower intake of fat and sweet beverages

  32. PREVENTION: PRESCHOOLER • Day care / preschool • What and how much are the children being fed? • Beverages • Snacks • What type and how much physical activity? • Russell, RP et al. Pediatrics 114:1258-1263, 2004 • What type and how much sedentary activity is there?

  33. PREVENTION: SCHOOL AGED CHILD • Measure and plot BMI • Monitor BMI • If increasing BMI % even if “normal” this is a red flag • Review BMI curve with parents and child • Provide positive reinforcement if normal

  34. PREVENTION: SCHOOL AGED CHILD • Anticipatory guidance • Nutrition • Discuss beverages • Soda consumption has increased 300% in last 20 years • 20% of adolescent males consume >4 sodas per day • Promote consumption of low fat dairy products and water • Soft drinks in schools. Pediatrics 113:152-154, 2004

  35. PREVENTION: SCHOOL AGED CHILD • Anticipatory guidance • Nutrition • Portion size • 3 year olds will eat what is appropriate despite how much is on the plate. Older children consume more if portion size is larger. • Portion size has increased over the years especially at fast food restaurants: “Biggie sized” • Read labels on food regarding portion size (adult portion size) • www.mypyramid.gov

  36. PREVENTION: SCHOOL AGED CHILD • Anticipatory guidance • Nutrition • Eat regular meals • Skipping breakfast is a risk factor for obesity • Children who eat breakfast do better in school vs. those who do not • Skipping meals does not result in decrease caloric consumption, tend to over eat at other meals or snack frequently

  37. PREVENTION: SCHOOL AGED CHILD • Anticipatory guidance • Physical activity • Ask the child how much physical activity they do • What type of activities are they involved in • What are the barriers to doing physical activity • CDC recommends 60 minutes of moderate physical activity per day

  38. PREVENTION: SCHOOL AGED CHILD • Anticipatory guidance • Physical activity • Activity needs to be fun • Do this with family and or friends • Promote life long activities • Have a variety of activities

  39. “NO CHILD LEFT ON THEIR BEHIND!”

  40. PREVENTION: SCHOOL AGED CHILD • Anticipatory guidance • Lifestyle • Promote <1-2 hours of screen time • 25% watch more than 4 hours per day • For overweight children decreasing sedentary activity was more effective at inducing weight loss than promotion of physical activity • Prevention of pediatric overweight and obesity. Pediatrics 112; 424-430, 2003.

  41. PREVENTION: SCHOOL AGED CHILD • Anticipatory guidance • Lifestyle • No TV in bedroom • TV in bedroom associated with: • More TV time • Worse eating and exercise habits • Poorer academic performance • Barr-Anderson et al. Pediatrics April 2008 • TV, computer and video games are a privilege, not a right

  42. PREVENTION: SCHOOL AGED CHILD • Anticipatory guidance • Lifestyle • Eat as a family • Special family time being physically active • Parents act as a role model • Promote healthy life long habits of physical activity and nutritious eating

  43. PREVENTION: SCHOOL AGED CHILD • Anticipatory guidance • Lifestyle • Eating out / take out food • Approximately $0.50 of every nutrition dollar is spent on food out side the home • The portion size tends to be larger • The food tends to be higher in fat and salt • When eating out try to make healthier choices • Baked potato or salad instead of french fries • Water or low fat milk instead of soda • Nutrition information for fast food available on line and in some restaurants

  44. PREVENTION SCHOOL AGED CHILD • Anticipatory guidance • Physical environment • Proximity of fast-food restaurants to school • Fast food restaurant within ½ mile of school • Consumed fewer fruits and vegetables • Consumed more soda • Were more likely to be overweight • Davis, B et al. Proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools and adolescent obesity. Am J Public Health 99:505-510, 2009

  45. PREVENTION: SCHOOL AGED CHILD • Anticipatory guidance • Lifestyle • Encourage to participate in organized sports • Weintraub DL et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 162(3):232-237, 2008 • Participate in after school activities • Volunteer

  46. PHYSICIAN AS COMMUNITY ADVOCATE • School / preschool • Educate administrators, teachers and parents about obesity • Be part of School Health Advisory Board • Promote nutrition, physical education and lifestyle education

  47. PHYSICIAN AS COMMUNITY ADVOCATE • Promote appropriate use and items in vending machines • 73% of elementary schools, 97% of middle schools and 100% of high schools have 1 or more sources of competitive food • Improving child nutrition policy: Insights from national USDA study of school food environments. RWJF Policy Brief 2/09 • Students in schools where competitive foods are restricted consumed less sweet beverages • Briefel R et al. J Am Dietetic Assoc 109:S9a-S107, 2009 • Soft drinks in schools. Pediatrics 113:152-154, 2004.

  48. PHYSICIAN AS COMMUNITY ADVOCATE • School / preschool • Promote nutritious meals • 42% of schools do not offer fresh fruit or raw vegetables every day for lunch • Less than 5% offer whole grain bread products • Commercially prepared food products ie pizza, chicken nuggets, beef patties etc account for 40% of lunch entrees • Fewer than 1/3 of schools met recommendations for total and saturated fats • Crepinsek MK et al. J Am Dietetic Assoc 109:S31-S43, 2009 • Condon E et al. J Am Dietetic Assoc 109:S67-S78, 2009

  49. PHYSICIAN AS COMMUNITY ADVOCATE • Community • Advocate for safe and accessible places for children to be physically active • Need to develop neighborhoods that are environmentally friendly and conducive to physical activity • Franzini L et al. Influences of physical and social neighborhood environments on children’s physical activity and obesity. Am J Public Health 99:271-278, 2007 • Need access to full service grocery stores with reasonable cost for healthy foods • Obesity Prevalence Among Low-Income, Preschool-Aged Children --- United States, 1998—2008, MMWR July 24, 2009 58(28): 769-773