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  2. The Progress of War: 1861-1865

  3. Theatres of War • Two major areas of battle on the land: • The Eastern Theatre • East of the Appalachians, particularly the region surrounding the two capital cities: Washington D.C. and Richmond, Virginia. • The Western Theatre • Centred around the Mississippi River and its tributaries • Critical to victory b/c if the Union was able to control this region, they would be able to cut off Confederate food supplies.

  4. The Eastern Theatre

  5. War in the East: 1861-1862

  6. VIRGINIA: Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas)July, 1861 • July 21,1861 • The generasl for the confederates was Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson • The general for the Yankees was Irvin McDowell. • Confederate troops were more organized; Union was forced to retreat • Casualties: North – 387 killed South lost 460. • The South won the battle.

  7. 2nd Manassas/Bull Run • August 29-30, 1862 • Stonewall Jackson (Confederate) vs. John Pope (Yankees). • The North lost 16,000 soldiers while the South lost only 9,000 • The South won the battle.

  8. Battle of Antietam “Bloodiest Single Day of the War” September 17, 1862 • The general for the Confederates was Robert E. Lee. • The general for the Yankees was McClellan. Union Casualties: 12,401 Confederate Casualties: 10,318 23,000 casualties

  9. Battle of Antietam “Bloodiest Single Day of the War” • The Battle took place in Farmer Miller’s cornfield. • The battle is known as the Single bloodiest day in the Civil War. • 23,500 men were killed in the Bloody lane. • The name of the bridge where the confederates held the Yankees for 4 hours is called Burnside. • The south used rocks when they ran out of ammunition. • South was able to retreat without the Union following to finish them off. • It was after this battle when Lincoln made his “Emancipation Proclamation”

  10. Emancipation in 1863

  11. TheEmancipationProclamation

  12. The Emancipation Proclamation – Why? • At the beginning of the war, the freeing of enslaved persons was not universally supported in the North; • Lincoln – not an abolitionist. • Believed slavery to be immoral, but recognized the constitutional guarantees for slavery • Continuously reinforced his goal to “save the Union”, fearing that if he changed his goals the border states would join the Confederacy. • Over time, Lincoln became pressured into turning the war into a crusade against slavery: • Abolitionists and Radical Republicans demanded that Southern slaveholders be punished for the war by loss of their property; • Northerners wanted to fight in a war that supported destroying an institution that violated human principles and dignity; • Public opinion in Europe, specifically Britain, was strongly opposed to slavery

  13. The Emancipation Proclamation – What? • after the Union's victory at Antietam, Lincoln met with his cabinet to refine his July draft and announce what is now known as the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. • In this document, he issued an ultimatum to the seceded states: Return to the Union by New Year's Day or freedom will be extended to all slaves within your borders. • Formal announcement made by Lincoln on Sept. 22, 1862, to free (emancipate) slaves in the Confederate states on Jan. 1, 1863 • At one stroke, Lincoln declared that over 3 million African American slaves "henceforward shall be free," that the "military and naval authorities" would now "recognize and maintain" that freedom, and that these newly freed slaves would "be received into the armed service of the United States" in order to make war on their former masters. • This allowed black soldiers to fight for the Union -- soldiers that were desperately needed. It also tied the issue of slavery directly to the war. By the end of the war, almost 200,000 black soldiers and sailors had fought for the Union and freedom. • It is important to remember that the Emancipation Proclamation did not free all slaves in the United States. Rather, it declared free only those slaves living in states not under Union control (held by the enemy). • Lincoln was fully aware of the irony, but he did not want to antagonize the "border states" by setting their slaves free • There were over 800000 slaves in the border states and areas in the South already conquered by the Union armies. For these areas, Lincoln recommended “compensated emancipation” – setting the slave free, but providing their owners with compensation. • This was only done in the District of Columbia (3000 slaves) • Intended both as a war and propaganda measure, the Emancipation Proclamation initially had far more symbolic than real impact, because the federal government had no means to enforce it at the time. • the document clearly and irrevocably notified the South and the world that the war was being fought not just to preserve the Union, but to put an end to the "peculiar institution." • Eventually, as Union armies occupied more and more southern territory, the Proclamation turned into reality, as thousands of slaves were set free by the advancing federal troops. • Slavery was finally completely abolished by the 13th Amendment to the Constitution in 1865.

  14. The Southern View of Emancipation

  15. Fredericksburg, Dec. 13 – 15, 1862 • The general for the Confederates was Robert E. Lee • The general for the Yankees was Burnside. • The North had 122,000 soldiers while the South had 78,500 • Union Casualties: 12,653 Confederate Casualties: 4,201 9,000 Union soldiers were killed while only 1,500 Southern soldiers were killed. • The South won the battle. • Lee said, “It is well that was is so horrible, else we should grow too fond of it.’ Union Casualties: 12,653 Confederate Casualties: 4,201

  16. Chancellorsville, Va. • May 1-14, 1863 • The general for the Confederates was Robert E. Lee • The general for the Yankees was Joseph Hooker. • South had 45,000 soldiers and North had 70,000 soldiers. • Major battle on May 2 at 6 in the evening. With the smoke thick in the air some Yankees killed Yankees and Confederates killed Confederates. • Stonewall Jackson was shot 3 times and killed by his own men in the confusion. His last words were “Let us cross over the river and rest under the shades of the trees.” • South won the battle.

  17. Union Casualties: 18,400 Confederate Casualties: 11,400

  18. The Road to Gettysburg: 1863

  19. Gettysburg Casualties Over 165,000 soldiers participate in the largest battle in the Western Hemisphere. After three days of fighting, Lee retreats, leaving 4,000 dead Confederates. Total casualties: 23,000 Union, 28,000 Confederates

  20. The Gettysburg Address • The Gettysburg Address is considered one of the greatest speeches of all time. • It was delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on Nov. 19, 1863, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated the Confederates at the decisive Battle of Gettysburg. • Lincoln was asked to attend the ceremony; it was here where he issued the address. “these dead shall not have died in vain”

  21. The Gettysburg Address “In just over two minutes, Lincoln invoked the principles of human equality espoused by the Declaration of Independence and redefined the Civil War as a struggle not merely for the Union, but as "a new birth of freedom” that would bring true equality to all of its citizens, create a unified nation in which states' rights were no longer dominant, defined democracy in terms of government of the people, by the people, for the people, and defined republicanism in terms of freedom, equality and democracy.” • American Rhetoric: Abraham Lincoln - Gettysburg Address •

  22. Gettysburg Address Meaning • Lincoln's speech puts the Civil War in perspective as a test of the success of the American Revolution. • The nation founded on equality was in the midst of a war to determine whether such a nation could continue to exist. • He said that they were gathered to formally dedicate ground hallowed by the men, American citizens, who died there, but his speech turned the event into a rededication of the living to the war effort to preserve a nation of freedom.

  23. The Western Theatre

  24. Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson, Tenn. • February 1862 • Gen. Grant captures two forts on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. Confederates forced out of Kentucky and yield much of Tennessee • The fall of Ft. Donelson opened a way for the Union to advance south toward a railroad centre in Mississippi, which would provide Grant with access to capture Memphis, Tennessee

  25. Shiloh - April 6, 1862 • Confederates commanded by Albert Sidney Johnston roared into Grant’s encampment around Pittsburgh Landing, beginning the bloodiest battle of the war. • Named for the little whitewashed church around which some of the fiercest early fighting swirled - Shiloh, a Hebrew word meaning "place of peace." • The Union escaped disaster when reinforcements arrived and Johnston was killed. • Union Casualties: 13,047 Confederate Casualties: 10,699

  26. By the end of 1862, the Union armies occupied all of western Tennessee and were moving south into Mississippi. • The Union was able to make New Orleans surrender, with troops there advancing north. • Only Vicksburg, Mississippi, blocked the Union from controlling the Mississippi River.

  27. The War in the West, 1863: Vicksburg

  28. Vicksburg, Mississippi • Ulysses S. Grant fights his way to Vicksburg • After crossing the Mississippi and leaving behind his supply lines, he struck at the rebels five times, captured Jackson, the state capital, and came up on the Confederate stronghold from behind. • All of Mississippi River now under Union control. • On the same day that Lee retreated from Gettysburg, Vicksburg surrendered. Union Casualties: 10,142Confederate Casualties: 9,091

  29. Chattanooga – the Battle of Chickamauga • Rail centre on the Tennessee-Georgia border • In Sept. 1763, at the Battle of Chickamauga, a union army was badly defeated • They retreated to Chattanooga, and were saved by Grant’s reinforcements in October. • By the end of 1863, only 4 states remained in Confederate hands – Georgia, S. Carolina, N. Carolina, and Virginia (West Virginia had been added as a state to the Union earlier in the year)