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12.1 (Sec. A&B) & 12.2 Period 5 Group 1. Ions. Covalent bonding. Ionic bonding. Url : http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/@ api/deki/files/3293/=ionicCl. jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Covalent.svg/160px-Covalent.svg.png.

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Covalent bonding

Ionic bonding

  • Url: http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/@ api/deki/files/3293/=ionicCl. jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Covalent.svg/160px-Covalent.svg.png
subtopic i types of chemical bonds
Subtopic ITypes of Chemical Bonds
  • A bond is a force that holds groups of two or more atoms together and makes them function as a unit.

Ionic Bonding

  • The strong bonding forces present result from the attraction among the closely packed, oppositely charged ions is the ionic bonding.

Covalent bonding

  • The type of bonding in hydrogen molecules and many others where electrons are shared by nuclei is called covalent bonding.
  • Q: What is the type of bonding that are between the extremes in intermediate cases?
A: Polar covalent bonding
  • url: http://www.chemprofessor.com/imf_files/image005.jpg
subtopic ii electronegativity
Subtopic IIElectronegativity
  • The unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms is described by a property called electronegativity; the relative ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself.

Electronegativity generally:

  • Increases going from left to right across a period
  • Decreases going down a group for the representative elements.


  • The polarity of a bond depends on the difference between the electronegativity values of the atoms forming the bond.
  • Q: How does electronegativity increase and decrease on the periodic table?
A: Electronegativity increases going left to right across a period and decreases going down a group.

Url: http://www.grandinetti.org/Teaching/Chem121/Lectures/Electronegativity/assets/ElectronegativityTrends.gif

subtopic iii stable electron configuration changes
Subtopic IIIStable Electron Configuration Changes


  • Metals form ions by losing electrons to achieve the configuration of the previous noble gases.
  • Chemical compounds are always neutral
  • Q: What is the main difference between how metals and nonmetals form ions?
A: Metal ions form by losing electrons to match the configuration of previous noble gases. Nonmetals gains.

url: http://www.chemistryland.com/CHM130W/03-BuildingBlocks/Chaos/Orbitals-d.jpg

subtopic iv ionic bonding and structures
Subtopic IVIonic Bonding and Structures
  • Strong bonding in these ionic compounds result from the attractions between the oppositely charged cations and anions.

Structures of ionic compounds

  • To understand the packing of ions, it helps to realize a cation is always smaller than the parent atom, and an anion is always larger than the parent atom.
  • Q: What are the oppositely charged ions used to bond ionic compounds, and how are they different by another?
A: Cations and anions; cation is positively charged while anion are negatively charged.
  • url: http://scienceaid.co.uk/chemistry/fundamental/images/polarisation.jpg
subtopic v ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions
Subtopic VIonic Compounds containing Polyatomic Ions
  • Polyatomic Ions – Charged species composed of several atoms

Example: Ammonium Nitrate contains the NH4+ and NO3-

  • Q: What are polyatomic ions and give an example?
A: Polyatomic ions are charged species composed of several atoms. Example: Ammonium Nitrate
  • url: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_13rTsbdEqkM/RkZrzSfQ6QI/AAAAAAAAAA8/LriAgPaAZUY/s200/220px-Nitroglycerin-2D-skeletal.png
  • Q #1: What is the difference between the atoms used in ionic and covalent bonding?
  • Q #2: How are atoms held together by a force that makes them function as a unit?
  • Q #3: How are polyatomic ions different from simple anions?
  • Q #4: What does the polarity of 1 bond depend on?
  • Q #5: Why must all compounds be electronically neutral?
  • A #1: The atoms in ionic bonding are metals and nonmetals while covalent uses nonmetal and nonmetal.
  • A #2: They are held by a bond.
  • A #3: An anion is a negative charge formed by a nonmetal and polyatomic ions are charged species composed of atoms.
  • A #4: It depends on the difference between electronegativity values of the atoms forming that bond
  • A #5: Because all compounds have either a positive or negative charge that cancels out to no charge.
reference page
Reference Page
  • http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/@ api/deki/files/3293/=ionicCl. Jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Covalent.svg/160px-Covalent.svg.png
  • http://www.chemprofessor.com/imf_files/image005.jpg
  • http://www.grandinetti.org/Teaching/Chem121/Lectures/Electronegativity/assets/ElectronegativityTrends.gif
  • http://www.chemistryland.com/CHM130W/03-BuildingBlocks/Chaos/Orbitals-d.jpg
  • http://scienceaid.co.uk/chemistry/fundamental/images/polarisation.jpg
  • http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_13rTsbdEqkM/RkZrzSfQ6QI/AAAAAAAAAA8/LriAgPaAZUY/s200/220px-Nitroglycerin-2D-skeletal.png