Unit 8 Ecology Big Idea: Biological Systems Interact. These Systems & their Interactions Possess Complex Properties
What is Ecology? • The scientific study of the interactions between organisms & the environment, What are we looking at when we are studying ecology?
Interactions of living & nonlivingthings. • What is the scientific word for living factors in an ecosystem? • What is the scientific word for nonliving factors in an ecosystem? Biotic factor abiotic factor
Today’s Objective 1.) Understand the link between climate & biomes & familiarize yourself with reading and interpreting climographs.2.) Work with a group to learn about, and create a brief presentation on an assigned biome.
Part 1: Climograph • A climograph is a plot of the annual mean temperature and precipitation in a particular region. • Biomes are major life zones characterized by vegetation type (terrestrial biomes) or physical environment (aquatic biomes) • Climate is very important in determining why terrestrial biomes are found in certain areas
What is the difference between weather & climate? • Climate is defined as the prevailing long-term weather conditions in a particular region; weather is defined as the short-term atmospheric conditions of temperature, sunlight, moisture, and wind.
Climate affects the latitudinal patterns of terrestrial biomes Climate and Terrestrial Biomes 30°N Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn 30°S Tropical forest Savanna Desert Chaparral Temperate grassland Temperate broadleaf forest Northern coniferous forest Tundra High mountains Polar ice
Desert Temperate grassland Tropical forest 30 Temperate broadleaf forest 15 Annual mean temperature (°C) Northern coniferous forest 0 Arctic and alpine tundra 15 0 100 200 300 400 Annual mean precipitation (cm)
Based on this climograph, what mainly differentiates temperate grassland from temperate broadleaf forests? Temperate broadleaf forests have higher mean annual precipitation.
From this graph, we can conclude that • each biome has distinct temperature and mean annual precipitation. • precipitation and temperature alone determine biomes. • precipitation determines temperature. • tundra and tropical forest are climatically different. • biomes determine precipitation.
Use the climograph to answer the following question. • I am looking for a particular biome that has a mean temperature of about 12 C, and has an annual mean precipitation of 80 cm. • Which biome is it?
A particular biome has a mean temperature of about 12 degrees C, and has an annual mean precipitation of 80 cm. Which biome is it?There are 3 different biomes that overlap under these parameters. How can we explain this variation? • Biomes are affected not just by average temperature and precipitation, but also by the pattern of temperature and precipitation through the year.
Table I Table II • Compare and contrast the two climographs. What are the advantages to each? • Compare the 2 graphs. Based on the information given in Table I, which biome could be described by Table II. Justify your answer.
Mean avg. temp = sum of mean monthly temps in the year/12 • Mean avg. precipitation = sum of all yearly precipitation measurements divided by the number of years.
Your task: • Break into 8 groups • Read 1150-1152, and then the section on your assigned biome (1153-1156) to create a short (< 5 minute) lesson. Your presentation must: • Describe the biotic and abiotic features your assigned biome • have an climograph, comparing your biome to at least one other biome • have a world map indicating where the biome can be found, • have an illustration of potentialinteractions occurring in the biome • include an illustrative example that explains the following statement: • “All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abioticinteractions involving exchange of matter and freeenergy”
Similar characteristics can arise in distant biomes through __________________ • For example, cacti in North America and euphorbs in African deserts appear similar but are from different evolutionary lineages convergent evolution
Figure 52.11 Euphorbia canariensis Cereus peruvianus