Stations • Vocab Station • Pronoun Station • Reading Passages Station • Test Practice Station
Stations—12 min rotations • GROUP 1-4 • 1 rotates to 2 • 2 rotates to 3 • 3 rotates to 4 • 4 rotates to 1 • GROUP 5-8 • 5 rotates to 6 • 6 rotates to 7 • 7 rotates to 8 • 8 rotates to 5
Strategies for Answering Multiple-Choice Question • First, read the selection as if you were not even taking a test. • Keep reading even if you do not understand at first • Look at the big picture. • What is the title? • What is the main idea or the theme? • What is the author’s purpose? • Inform, entertain, or explain
Next, read the questions. • This helps you know what to look for when rereading • Reread the selection • Underline information that relates to the questions • Go back to the questions • Try to answer in your mind before looking at choices
Finally, read ALL the answer choices and eliminate those that are obviously incorrect • This will narrow down your choices and get rid of distracting answers
Strategies for answering open-ended questions • Read the whole selection • Pay attention to major events and characters • Jot these down if it helps you • Read each question carefully • Skip the question if at first you can’t answer it • Look for words that appear frequently • Compare, contrast, interpret, discuss, & summarize
Return to the selection and skim it • Look for the details that will help you answer your question (text evidence) • When writing your answer, be precise but brief. • Use details • Proofread for spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors
Test Tips for Reading Literature • Summarizing • Step 1: look for the main characters, conflict, and most important details • Step 2: consider every answer choice, eliminating those that restate a single detail, make a general statement but has no important details, or have little or nothing to do with the selection • Step 3: choose the answer that covers the entire selection
Making Inferences • Step 1: skim the selection once for a general understanding; then, reread it carefully • Step 2: locate key words and phrases in the answer choices that match similar words and phrases in the reading • Step 3: confirm your answer by considering your prior knowledge
Predicting Outcomes • Step 1: read the selection carefully. Everything you need to know is there. • Step 2: using the information in the selection, make a prediction about what will most likely happen next. (Ask yourself what will be the result of the events) • Step 3: for this kind of question, you will need to read all of the answers before you choose one. (Eliminate as many answers as you can)
Drawing Conclusions • Step 1: Read the question or stem to identify the topic. • Step 2: study the answer choices, ruling out those choices that are clearly wrong. • Step 3: reread the selection and look for evidence that supports one of the remaining answers.
Analyzing Character • There are 6 different ways to develop a character • By describing how the character looks and dresses • By letting the reader hear the character speak • By showing the reader how the character acts • By letting the reader know the character’s thoughts and feelings • By revealing what other characters think or say about the character • By telling the reader directly what the character is like (kind, cruel, brave, and so on)
Identifying the setting • Setting is the time and place of a story, play, or poem. The setting can help create a mood, contribute to the conflict, or affect the events of the plot.
Identifying Literary Devices • Alliteration • Repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together • Example: Sue slipped on the snowy sidewalk.
Figurative Language • Language that describes one thing in terms of another and is not meant to be taken literally • Metaphor: comparing one thing to something quite unlike it • The road was a ribbon wrapping the mountain. • Simile: comparing two things using like or as • The smooth surface of the lake was like a mirror. • Personification: describing an inanimate object by giving it human characteristics • The wind sang a sad song
Onomatopoeia: words that sound like what they name • Example: tick tock, splat, quack • Imagery: language that appeals to any of the five senses (sight, touch, smell, hearing, taste) • Example: At the pond, a rustling of dry reeds revealed the brown head of a grackle. • Rhyme: repetition of accented vowel sounds and all sounds following them • Example: wide/side, flow/glow
Irony: contrast between expectation and reality • Verbal irony: contrasts what is said and what is meant • A man who dislikes a woman’s hat says, “Oh, I absolutely love that hat!” • Situational irony: contrasts what is expected to happen and what really happens • A couple planned a beautiful outdoor wedding only to have it rain on their wedding day. • Dramatic irony: a contrast between what a character thinks is true and what the audience knows to be true • A play’s hero thinks his son is dead, but the audience knows that his son is alive.
Symbol: an object, event, person, or animal to which extraordinary meaning is attached • Example: a dove symbolizes peace; red roses symbolize love. • Allusion: a reference to a person, place, or event from history, literature, religion, mythology, politics, sports, science, or pop culture • Example: "Christy didn't like to spend money. She was no Scrooge, but she seldom purchased anything except the bare necessities".
TEST TIPS FOR GRAMMAR AND USAGE • Nouns and Pronouns • A noun is a word used to name a person, place, thing or idea • Greg went to the bookstore and bought three magazines about sports. • A pronoun is a word used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns • I enjoy reading books. Mysteries are my favorite. I always picture myself as the detective.
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement • A pronoun refers to a noun or another person, called its antecedent. A pronoun should agree in number and gender with its antecedent. • Laura put a bookmark in her book before she got up to answer the phone. • The swimmers hung up their towels after they dried off. • Singular pronouns • each-either-neither-one-everyone-everybody-no one-anyone-someone-somebody • Plural pronouns • both-few-many-several
Verbs • A verb is a word used to express action or a state of being. • After many attempts, Terry finally climbed the wall. He was tired but happy. • Verbs can express action in either an active voice or passive voice. In the active voice, the subject is doing the action. In the passive voice, the subject receives the action. • Active: Lilly threw the ball. • Passive: The ball was thrown by Lilly.
Adjectives • Word(s) used to describe a noun or pronoun • Tells what kind, which one, how much, or how many • A, an, and the are special adjectives called articles • Adverbs • Word(s) used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb • Tells where, when, how or to what extent
Phrases • Group of words that do not have a subject and verb • going to the concert • to get to work early • Clauses • Group of words that contain a subject and verb • 2 kinds • Independent: Lila went to music class. • Dependent: Before Lila went to music class • Dangling modifiers are words, phrases or clauses that are not clearly related to the word or words they modify. • Dangling modifier: While chasing the ball, Jane was knocked over by the dog. • Corrected sentence: While chasing the ball, the dog knocked over Jane.
Types of Sentences • A simple sentence consists of a subject and a verb • Megan will go to the library today. • A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction • Megan will go to the library today, and Daniel will go tomorrow. • A complex sentence consists of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses • Megan will go to the library today before she goes to work. • A compound-complex sentence has two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses • Before Megan goes to work today, she will go to the library, and Daniel will meet her there.
Subject-Verb Agreement • Singular subjects take singular verbs. Use singular verbs for each, either, neither, one, everyone, everybody, no one, anyone, someone, or somebody. • Margaret loves biology. • Each of the boys needs a pencil. • Neither of the girls has a jacket. • Everyone is going on the field trip. • Plural subjects take plural verbs. Use plural verbs for both, few, many, or several. • The brothers love chemistry. • Both of the dogs were adopted from the local shelter. • Several of us agree that the book was better than the movie.
Test Tips for Mechanics • Capitalization • Capitalize the first word in every sentence • Capitalize the pronoun I • Capitalize proper nouns • The Illinois State Fair is held in Springfield. This year it will be in August. Samantha is going with her family. • Capitalize titles • Dr. Washington reads the New York Times every day.
Punctuation • End marks • Use a period at the end of a statement or request • My neighbor is an electrician. • Please tell us about the movie. • Use a question mark at the end of a question • How do you get to Park Street? • Use an exclamation point at the end of an exclamation or command • Wow! That’s amazing! • Give me that, now!
Commas • Use commas to separate items in a series • we bought pencils, pens, and folders. • Use commas to set off coordinating adjectives • The wind howled loudly during the dark, stormy night. • Use commas before and, but, or, nor, for, so and yet when they join the parts of a compound sentence • I think bats are cool, but my brother is afraid of them. • Use commas to set off interrupters • Mr. Newberry, our principal, plays the guitar in a local band. • Yes, I’ve been to the Smithsonian. • Do you know who the winner was, Jennifer? • Use commas to separate items in dates and addresses • The next meeting is on Tuesday, August 12, 2014 • The Space Needle is located at 400 Broad Street, Seattle, WA 98109. • Use a comma after the opening of a friendly letter and after the closing of any letter • Dear Mary, • Sincerely,
Apostrophes • Use apostrophes to form possessives • a dog’s collar • the boys’ wallets • people’s habits • Use apostrophes to form contractions • I am…….I’m • Where is……..where’s • Has not……..hasn’t • 2013……..’13