ATP (adenosine triphosphate) • is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism
ADP (adenosine triphosphate) • is a nucleoside triphosphate. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. ADP consists of the pyrophosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine
Photosynthesis • is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert the light energy captured from the sun into chemical energy that can be used to fuel the organism's activities.
Light-dependent reactions • is the first stage of photosynthesis, the process by which plants capture and store energy from sunlight.
Light-independent reactions • are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.
Pigment • Molecules that absorb specific wavelengths of sunlight.
Chlorophyll • is a green pigment found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants
Electron Transport Chain • couples electron transfer between an electron donor (such as NADH) and an electron acceptor (such as O2) with the transfer of H+ ions (protons) across a membrane.
NAPH+ • Electron Carrier molecule, when carrying excited electrons it becomes NADPH
Photolysis • is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons. It is defined as the interaction of one or more photons with one target molecule
Calvin Cycle • is a series of biochemical redox reactions that take place in the stoma of chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms. It is also known as the light-independent reactions.
Cellular Respiration • is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Anaerobic • Chemical reactions that do not require the presence of oxygen
Aerobic • Chemical reactions reactions that require the presence of oxygen
Glycolysis • is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate
Citric Acid Cycle • is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidization of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide.
Lactic acid Fermentation • is a biological process by which glucose, fructose, and sucrose are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate. It is an anaerobic fermentation reaction that occurs in some bacteria and animal cells, such as muscle cells
Alcoholic Fermentation • also referred to as ethanol fermentation, is a biological process in which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose are converted into cellular energy and thereby produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products.